Vanadium (V) Elemental Symbol
Vanadium





French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Vanadium Vanadium Vanadio Vanádio Vanadio Vanadin

Vanadium(V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) MetalThe vanadium atom has a radius of 131.1.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-62-2, vanadium has a blue-silver-grey appearance. Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Although Vanadium was first discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801, metallic vanadium was not isolated until 1867 when Henry Enfield Roscoe extracted it from vanadium chloride (VCl3). Vanadium was named after the word "Vanadis" meaning goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology.


Vanadium is highly resistant to corrosion so it is commonly used to alloy stainless steel grades. Vanadium compounds are used in advanced ceramics. Vanadium's most important compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Sputtering TargetVanadium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium Oxide (V2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Vanadium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Vanadium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Several vanadium compounds are toxic to some creatures despite the fact that it is an essential trace element. Safety data for Vanadium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Vanadium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: V Melting Point: 2183 K, 1910 °C, 3470 °F
Atomic Number: 23 Boiling Point: 3680 K, 3407 °C, 6165 °F
Atomic Weight: 50.9414 Density: 6.1 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.5 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 5, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.39 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 459.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 17.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 23 Thermal Conductivity: 30.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 23 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 28 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d34s2 Electronegativity: 1.63 (Pauling Scale)
Atomic Radius: 134 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 153±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.89 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 128 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 47 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 160 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 6.7
1st Ionization Energy: 650.92 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1414.49 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2828.10 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4560 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-62-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22426 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 4 ppb
PubChem CID: 23990 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011453 Abundance in universe, by atom: 20 ppb
EC Number: 231-171-1 Discovered By: Andrés Manuel del Río
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1801
SMILES Identifier: [V]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/V Other Names: Vanadin, Vanadio, Vanádio
InChI Key: LEONUFNNVUYDNQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Vanadium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Ammonium Metavanadate
Ammonium Vanadium(III) Sulfate
Calcium Vanadate
Cerium Vanadium Oxide
Cesium Metavanadate
Cesium Orthovanadate
Copper(II) Vanadium Oxide
Lead(II) Metavanadate
Magnesium Vanadium Oxide
Neodymium Doped Gadolinium Orthovanadate
Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Potassium Metavanadate
Silver Metavanadate
Sodium Ammonium Vanadate
Sodium Metavanadate Hydrate
Sodium Orthovanadate
Sodium Pyrovanadate
Tungsten Oxide - Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Acetate
Vanadium Boride VB
Vanadium Boride VB2
Vanadium Bromide (VBr2)
Vanadium Bromide (VBr3)
Vanadium Carbide
Vanadium Carbide Powder
Vanadium Chloride VCl2
Vanadium Chloride VCl3
Vanadium Chloride Solution
Vanadium Diboride
Vanadium Fluoride VF2
Vanadium Fluoride VF3
Vanadium Fluoride VF4
Vanadium Gallide
Vanadium(II) Iodide
Vanadium(III) Iodide
Magnesium Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Nitride
Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide (V6O13)
Vanadium(II) Oxide
Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Vanadium(V) Oxide
Vanadium Oxysulfate Hydrate
Vanadium Oxytrichloride
Vanadium Pentoxide
Vanadium Silicide
Vanadium Silicide(II)
Vanadium(II) Silicide
Vanadium Sulfate
Vanadium Sulfate Solution
Vanadium(III) Chloride
Vanadium(IV) Chloride
Vanadium(V) Oxychloride
Vanadium(V) Oxyfluoride
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet doped with Vanadium
Yttrium Vanadate


Oxide Forms

Bismuth Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide Particles
Vanadium Oxide Pellets
Vanadium Oxide Pieces
Vanadium Oxide Powder
Vanadium Oxide Shot
Vanadium Oxide Tablets
Vanadium(IV) Oxide Sulfate Hydrate


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Vanadium Phosphide
Vanadium Selenide
Vanadium Telluride
Yb:YVO4
YbGd

Alloys

Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Aluminum Zirconium Vanadium Alloy
Chromium Vanadium
Iron Cobalt Vanadium Alloy
Nickel Vanadium
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Chromium Aluminium Foil
Vanadium Aluminum
Vanadium Aluminum Alloy
Vanadium Titanium Alloy
Zirconium Vanadium Alloy


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Chromium Vanadium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Vanadium SputteringTarget
Lanthanum Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Carbide Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Chromium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Vanadium Copper Sputtering Target
Vanadium Iron Sputtering Target
Vanadium Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nickel Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nitride Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Pentoxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Selenide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Telluride Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Tungsten Sputtering Target


Organometallic Compounds

2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Ammonium Hexafluorovanadate(III)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Chloride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Iodide
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(indenyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Chlorobis(indenyl)vanadium
Cyclopentadienylvanadium Tetracarbonyl
N,N'-Bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine Vanadium(IV) Oxide Complex
Tetrakis(acetato)bis(cyclopentadienyl) divanadium(III)
Vanadium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Vanadium Acetylacetonate
Vanadium Oxyacetylacetonate
Vanadium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Vanadium(V) Oxytriethoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytriisopropoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytripropoxide
Vanadyl Acetylacetonate


Recent Research & Development for Vanadium

  • Vanadium and cancer treatment: Antitumoral mechanisms of three oxidovanadium(IV) complexes on a human osteosarcoma cell line. León IE, Butenko N, Di Virgilio AL, Muglia CI, Baran EJ, Cavaco I, Etcheverry SB. J Inorg Biochem. 2014.
  • Local vanadium release from a calcium sulfate carrier accelerates fracture healing. Paglia DN, Wey A, Hreha J, Park AG, Cunningham C, Uko L, Benevenia J, O'Connor JP, Lin SS. J Orthop Res. 2014.
  • Assessing human exposure to aluminium, chromium and vanadium through outdoor dust ingestion in the Bassin Minier de Provence, France. Reis AP, Patinha C, Noack Y, Robert S, Dias AC. Environ Geochem Health. 2014.
  • Preparation and characterization of chitosan-zirconium(IV) composite for adsorption of vanadium(V). Zhang L, Liu X, Xia W, Zhang W. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Mar.
  • Vanadium uptake and translocation in dominant plant species on an urban coastal brownfield site. Qian Y, Gallagher FJ, Feng H, Wu M, Zhu Q. Sci Total Environ. 2014.
  • Enhanced electrochemical performance of ammonium vanadium bronze through sodium cation intercalation and optimization of electrolyte. Fei H, Liu X, Li H, Wei M. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 Mar.
  • Direct synthesis of novel vanadium oxide embedded porous carbon nanofiber decorated with iron nanoparticles as a low-cost and highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst. Taha AA, Hriez AA, Wu YN, Wang H, Li F. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 Mar.
  • Is the hypoglycemic action of vanadium compounds related to the suppression of feeding? Huang M, Wu Y, Wang N, Wang Z, Zhao P, Yang X. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014.
  • Validation of a method to quantify titanium, vanadium and zirconium in oral mucosa cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Talanta. 2014 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Martín-Cameán A.
  • Sex differences in blood genotoxic and cytotoxic effects as a consequence of vanadium inhalation: micronucleus assay evaluation. Rojas-Lemus M, Altamirano-Lozano M, Fortoul TI. J Appl Toxicol. 2014.
  • Is the Hypoglycemic Action of Vanadium Compounds Related to the Suppression of Feeding? Huang M, Wu Y, Wang N, Wang Z, Zhao P, Yang X. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014.
  • Carbon black anchored vanadium oxide nanobelts and their post-sintering counterpart (V2O5 nanobelts) as high performance cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Zhou X, Wu G, Wu J, Yang H, Wang J, Gao G. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014 Jan.
  • Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection of vanadium in water and food samples after solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Wadhwa SK, Tuzen M, Gul Kazi T, Soylak M. Talanta. 2013 Nov
  • Interfacial reaction of water ice on polycrystalline vanadium and its effects on thermal desorption of water. Souda R. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014 Jan.
  • Leaching characteristics of vanadium in mine tailings and soils near a vanadium titanomagnetite mining site. Yang J, Tang Y, Yang K, Rouff AA, Elzinga EJ, Huang JH. J Hazard Mater. 2014 Jan
  • Supercritically exfoliated ultrathin vanadium pentoxide nanosheets with high rate capability for lithium batteries. An Q, Wei Q, Mai L, Fei J, Xu X, Zhao Y, Yan M, Zhang P, Huang S. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013.
  • Structural diversity in hybrid vanadium(iv) oxyfluorides based on a common building block. Dalton Trans. 2014 create date:2013/10/17 | first author:Aidoudi FH
  • (OC-6-13)-Difluoridooxidobis(propan-2-ol)(propan-2-olato)vanadium(V). Acta Crystallogr C. 2013 create date:2013/12/07 | first author:Kohl J
  • Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility. Lehoux AP, Lockwood CL, Mayes WM, Stewart DI, Mortimer RJ, Gruiz K, Burke IT. Environ Geochem Health. 2013.
  • Influence of vanadium doping on the electrochemical performance of nickel oxide in supercapacitors. Park HW, Na BK, Cho BW, Park SM, Roh KC. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013.

Vanadium Isotopes


Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
50V 49.9471585 1.4(4)×1017 a 6+
51V 50.9439595 Stable 7/2-