Vanadium (V) Elemental Symbol
Vanadium





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Vanadium Vanadium Vanadio Vanádio Vanadio Vanadin

Vanadium(V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The vanadium atom has a radius of 131.1.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-62-2, vanadium has a blue-silver-grey appearance. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Metal Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Although Vanadium was first discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801, metallic vanadium was not isolated until 1867 when Henry Enfield Roscoe extracted it from vanadium chloride (VCl3). Vanadium was named after the word "Vanadis" meaning goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology.


Vanadium is highly resistant to corrosion so it is commonly used to alloy stainless steel grades. Vanadium compounds are used in advanced ceramics. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Sputtering TargetVanadium's most important compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. Vanadium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium Oxide (V2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Vanadium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Vanadium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Several vanadium compounds are toxic to some creatures despite the fact that it is an essential trace element. Safety data for Vanadium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Vanadium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: V Melting Point: 2183 K, 1910 °C, 3470 °F
Atomic Number: 23 Boiling Point: 3680 K, 3407 °C, 6165 °F
Atomic Weight: 50.9414 Density: 6.1 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.5 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 5, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.39 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 459.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 17.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 23 Thermal Conductivity: 30.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 23 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 28 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d34s2 Electronegativity: 1.63 (Pauling Scale)
Atomic Radius: 134 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 153±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.89 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 128 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 47 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 160 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 6.7
1st Ionization Energy: 650.92 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1414.49 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2828.10 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4560 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-62-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22426 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 4 ppb
PubChem CID: 23990 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011453 Abundance in universe, by atom: 20 ppb
EC Number: 231-171-1 Discovered By: Andrés Manuel del Río
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1801
SMILES Identifier: [V]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/V Other Names: Vanadin, Vanadio, Vanádio
InChI Key: LEONUFNNVUYDNQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Vanadium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Ammonium Metavanadate
Ammonium Vanadium(III) Sulfate
Calcium Vanadate
Cerium Vanadium Oxide
Cesium Metavanadate
Cesium Orthovanadate
Copper(II) Vanadium Oxide
Lead(II) Metavanadate
Magnesium Vanadium Oxide
Neodymium Doped Gadolinium Orthovanadate
Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Potassium Metavanadate
Silver Metavanadate
Sodium Ammonium Vanadate
Sodium Metavanadate Hydrate
Sodium Orthovanadate
Sodium Pyrovanadate
Terbium Vanadium Oxide
Tungsten Oxide - Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Acetate
Vanadium Boride VB
Vanadium Boride VB2
Vanadium Bromide (VBr2)
Vanadium Bromide (VBr3)
Vanadium Carbide
Vanadium Carbide Powder
Vanadium Chloride VCl2
Vanadium Chloride VCl3
Vanadium Chloride Solution
Vanadium Diboride
Vanadium Fluoride VF2
Vanadium Fluoride VF3
Vanadium Fluoride VF4
Vanadium Gallide
Vanadium(II) Iodide
Vanadium(III) Iodide
Vanadium Nitride
Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide (V6O13)
Vanadium(II) Oxide
Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Vanadium(V) Oxide
Vanadium Oxysulfate Hydrate
Vanadium Oxytrichloride
Vanadium Pentoxide
Vanadium Silicide
Vanadium Silicide(II)
Vanadium(II) Silicide
Vanadium Sulfate
Vanadium Sulfate Solution
Vanadium(III) Chloride
Vanadium(IV) Chloride
Vanadium(V) Oxychloride
Vanadium(V) Oxyfluoride


Oxide Forms

Bismuth Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide Particles
Vanadium Oxide Pellets
Vanadium Oxide Pieces
Vanadium Oxide Powder
Vanadium Oxide Shot
Vanadium Oxide Tablets
Vanadium(IV) Oxide Sulfate Hydrate


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Vanadium Phosphide
Vanadium Selenide
Vanadium Telluride
Yb:YVO4
YbGd
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet doped with Vanadium
Yttrium Vanadate

Alloys

Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Aluminum Zirconium Vanadium Alloy
Chromium Vanadium
Iron Cobalt Vanadium Alloy
Nickel Vanadium
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Chromium Aluminium Foil
Vanadium Aluminum
Vanadium Aluminum Alloy
Vanadium Titanium Alloy
Zirconium Vanadium Alloy


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Chromium Vanadium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Vanadium SputteringTarget
Lanthanum Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Carbide Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Chromium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Vanadium Copper Sputtering Target
Vanadium Iron Sputtering Target
Vanadium Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nickel Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nitride Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Pentoxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Selenide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Telluride Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Tungsten Sputtering Target


Organometallic Compounds

2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Ammonium Hexafluorovanadate(III)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Chloride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Iodide
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(indenyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Chlorobis(indenyl)vanadium
Cyclopentadienylvanadium Tetracarbonyl
N,N'-Bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine Vanadium(IV) Oxide Complex
Tetrakis(acetato)bis(cyclopentadienyl) divanadium(III)
Vanadium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Vanadium Acetylacetonate
Vanadium(IV) Etioporphyrin III Oxide
Vanadium Oxyacetylacetonate
Vanadium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Vanadium(V) Oxytriethoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytriisopropoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytripropoxide
Vanadyl Acetylacetonate


Recent Research & Development for Vanadium

  • Irvin Noel Booysen, Thulani Hlela, Matthew Piers Akerman, Bheki Xulu, Mono- and polynuclear vanadium(IV) and -(V) compounds with 2-substituted phenyl/pyridyl heterocyclic chelates, Polyhedron, Volume 85, 8 January 2015
  • Jaeheon Choe, Ki Hyun Kim, Dai Gil Lee, Corrugated carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate for vanadium redox flow batteries, Composite Structures, Volume 119, January 2015
  • Xiaolong Chen, Xueqiang Cao, Binglin Zou, Jun Gong, Chao Sun, High-temperature corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate coating by vanadium oxide, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 35, Issue 1, January 2015
  • Liang Chen, Xin Gu, Xiaolei Jiang, Nana Wang, Jie Yue, Huayun Xu, Jian Yang, Yitai Qian, Hierarchical vanadium pentoxide microflowers with excellent long-term cyclability at high rates for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Xiangguo Teng, Jicui Dai, Fangyuan Bi, Geping Yin, Ultra-thin polytetrafluoroethene/Nafion/silica composite membrane with high performance for vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Zhaohua Li, Le Liu, Lihong Yu, Lei Wang, Jingyu Xi, Xinping Qiu, Liquan Chen, Characterization of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Lulu Si, Zhengqiu Yuan, Lei Hu, Yongchun Zhu, Yitai Qian, Uniform and continuous carbon coated sodium vanadium phosphate cathode materials for sodium-ion battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • F.T. Wandschneider, D. Finke, S. Grosjean, P. Fischer, K. Pinkwart, J. Tübke, H. Nirschl, Model of a vanadium redox flow battery with an anion exchange membrane and a Larminie-correction, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 272, 25 December 2014
  • Irene Osada, Jan von Zamory, Elie Paillard, Stefano Passerini, Improved lithium-metal/vanadium pentoxide polymer battery incorporating crosslinked ternary polymer electrolyte with N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(perfluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 271, 20 December 2014
  • Jiawei Sun, Xianfeng Li, Xiaoli Xi, Qinzhi Lai, Tao Liu, Huamin Zhang, The transfer behavior of different ions across anion and cation exchange membranes under vanadium flow battery medium, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 271, 20 December 2014

Vanadium Isotopes


Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
50V 49.9471585 1.4(4)×1017 a 6+
51V 50.9439595 Stable 7/2-