Vanadium (V) Elemental Symbol
Vanadium





French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Vanadium Vanadium Vanadio Vanádio Vanadio Vanadin

Vanadium(V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) MetalThe vanadium atom has a radius of 131.1.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-62-2, vanadium has a blue-silver-grey appearance. Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Although Vanadium was first discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801, metallic vanadium was not isolated until 1867 when Henry Enfield Roscoe extracted it from vanadium chloride (VCl3). Vanadium was named after the word "Vanadis" meaning goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology.


Vanadium is highly resistant to corrosion so it is commonly used to alloy stainless steel grades. Vanadium compounds are used in advanced ceramics. Vanadium's most important compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Sputtering TargetVanadium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium Oxide (V2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Vanadium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Vanadium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Several vanadium compounds are toxic to some creatures despite the fact that it is an essential trace element. Safety data for Vanadium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Vanadium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: V Melting Point: 2183 K, 1910 °C, 3470 °F
Atomic Number: 23 Boiling Point: 3680 K, 3407 °C, 6165 °F
Atomic Weight: 50.9414 Density: 6.1 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.5 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 5, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.39 (kJ/kg K)
    Heat of Vaporization 459.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 17.6 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 23 Thermal Conductivity: 30.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 23 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 28 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d34s2 Electronegativity: 1.63 (Pauling Scale)
Atomic Radius: 134 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 153±8 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 24.89 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 128 GPa
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 47 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 160 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 6.7
1st Ionization Energy: 650.92 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1414.49 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 2828.10 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4560 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-62-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22426 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 4 ppb
PubChem CID: 23990 Abundance in universe, by weight: 1000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00011453 Abundance in universe, by atom: 20 ppb
EC Number: 231-171-1 Discovered By: Andrés Manuel del Río
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1801
SMILES Identifier: [V]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/V Other Names: Vanadin, Vanadio, Vanádio
InChI Key: LEONUFNNVUYDNQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Vanadium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Ammonium Metavanadate
Ammonium Vanadium(III) Sulfate
Calcium Vanadate
Cerium Vanadium Oxide
Cesium Metavanadate
Cesium Orthovanadate
Copper(II) Vanadium Oxide
Lead(II) Metavanadate
Magnesium Vanadium Oxide
Neodymium Doped Gadolinium Orthovanadate
Neodymium Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Potassium Metavanadate
Silver Metavanadate
Sodium Ammonium Vanadate
Sodium Metavanadate Hydrate
Sodium Orthovanadate
Sodium Pyrovanadate
Terbium Vanadium Oxide
Tungsten Oxide - Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Acetate
Vanadium Boride VB
Vanadium Boride VB2
Vanadium Bromide (VBr2)
Vanadium Bromide (VBr3)
Vanadium Carbide
Vanadium Carbide Powder
Vanadium Chloride VCl2
Vanadium Chloride VCl3
Vanadium Chloride Solution
Vanadium Diboride
Vanadium Fluoride VF2
Vanadium Fluoride VF3
Vanadium Fluoride VF4
Vanadium Gallide
Vanadium(II) Iodide
Vanadium(III) Iodide
Vanadium Nitride
Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide (V6O13)
Vanadium(II) Oxide
Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Vanadium(V) Oxide
Vanadium Oxysulfate Hydrate
Vanadium Oxytrichloride
Vanadium Pentoxide
Vanadium Silicide
Vanadium Silicide(II)
Vanadium(II) Silicide
Vanadium Sulfate
Vanadium Sulfate Solution
Vanadium(III) Chloride
Vanadium(IV) Chloride
Vanadium(V) Oxychloride
Vanadium(V) Oxyfluoride


Oxide Forms

Bismuth Vanadium Oxide
Vanadium Oxide Particles
Vanadium Oxide Pellets
Vanadium Oxide Pieces
Vanadium Oxide Powder
Vanadium Oxide Shot
Vanadium Oxide Tablets
Vanadium(IV) Oxide Sulfate Hydrate


Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Vanadium Phosphide
Vanadium Selenide
Vanadium Telluride
Yb:YVO4
YbGd
Yttrium Aluminum Garnet doped with Vanadium
Yttrium Vanadate

Alloys

Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Aluminum Zirconium Vanadium Alloy
Chromium Vanadium
Iron Cobalt Vanadium Alloy
Nickel Vanadium
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Chromium Aluminium Foil
Vanadium Aluminum
Vanadium Aluminum Alloy
Vanadium Titanium Alloy
Zirconium Vanadium Alloy


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Chromium Vanadium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Vanadium SputteringTarget
Lanthanum Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Sputtering Target
Nickel Vanadium Zirconium Sputtering Target
Titanium Aluminum Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Carbide Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Chromium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Cobalt Sputtering Target
Vanadium Copper Sputtering Target
Vanadium Iron Sputtering Target
Vanadium Molybdenum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nickel Sputtering Target
Vanadium Nitride Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Vanadium Oxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Pentoxide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Vanadium Selenide Sputtering Target
Vanadium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Telluride Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Vanadium Titanium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Tungsten Sputtering Target


Organometallic Compounds

2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Vanadium(IV) Oxide
Ammonium Hexafluorovanadate(III)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Chloride
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(III) Iodide
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) Dichloride
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(indenyl)vanadium(II)
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)vanadium(II)
Chlorobis(indenyl)vanadium
Cyclopentadienylvanadium Tetracarbonyl
N,N'-Bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine Vanadium(IV) Oxide Complex
Tetrakis(acetato)bis(cyclopentadienyl) divanadium(III)
Vanadium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Vanadium Acetylacetonate
Vanadium(IV) Etioporphyrin III Oxide
Vanadium Oxyacetylacetonate
Vanadium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Vanadium(V) Oxytriethoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytriisopropoxide
Vanadium(V) Oxytripropoxide
Vanadyl Acetylacetonate


Recent Research & Development for Vanadium

  • Mulan Qin, Qiang Liang, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang, Qing Zhang, Yan Tang, Xiaoping Tan, Template-free synthesis of vanadium oxides nanobelt arrays as high-rate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • V.K. Yu, D. Chen, Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M. Lindvall, J. Gran, D. Sichen, Determination of the vanadium solubility in the Al2O3–CaO (25 mass%)–SiO2 system, Calphad, Volume 47, December 2014
  • T. Muroga, J.M. Chen, V.M. Chernov, R.J. Kurtz, M. Le Flem, Present status of vanadium alloys for fusion applications, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Kameel Arshad, Ming-Yue Zhao, Yue Yuan, Ying Zhang, Zhen-Hua Zhao, Bo Wang, Zhang-Jian Zhou, Guang-Hong Lu, Effects of vanadium concentration on the densification, microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • David McNulty, D. Noel Buckley, Colm O'Dwyer, Synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide materials and structures as Li-ion battery positive electrodes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Hyun-Seok Cho, Masato Ohashi, J.W. Van Zee, Absorption behavior of vanadium in Nafion®, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Danmei Yu, Yajuan Qiao, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Jie Wang, Chao Li, Changguo Chen, Qisheng Huo, Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • T. Herr, P. Fischer, J. Tübke, K. Pinkwart, P. Elsner, Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane–dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Dong-Hong Qiu, Qi-Ye Wen, Qing-Hui Yang, Zhi Chen, Yu-Lan Jing, Huai-Wu Zhang, Electrically-driven metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide thin films in a metal–oxide-insulator–metal device structure, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Chi Won Hwang, Hui-Man Park, Chang Min Oh, Taek Sung Hwang, Joonmok Shim, Chang-Soo Jin, Synthesis and characterization of vinylimidazole-co-trifluoroethylmethacrylate-co-divinylbenzene anion-exchange membrane for all-vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Levent Semiz, Nurdan Demirci Sankir, Mehmet Sankir, Influence of the basic membrane properties of the disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymer membranes on the vanadium redox flow battery performance, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Bao Zhang, Ya-dong Han, Jun-chao Zheng, Chao Shen, Lei Ming, Jia-feng Zhang, A novel lithium vanadium fluorophosphate nanosheet with uniform carbon coating as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Minwoo Kang, Yongchan Suh, Yong-Jun Oh, Young-Kook Lee, The effects of vanadium on the microstructure and wear resistance of centrifugally cast Ni-hard rolls, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 609, 5 October 2014
  • Xiaoxin Wu, Hongfeng Xu, Pengcheng Xu, Yang Shen, Lu Lu, Jicheng Shi, Jie Fu, Hong Zhao, Microwave-treated graphite felt as the positive electrode for all-vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Young Bok Kim, Moo Whan Shin, Synthesis of diverse structured vanadium pentoxides particles by the simplified hydrothermal method, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • L.A. Rochford, I. Hancox, T.S. Jones, Understanding domain symmetry in vanadium oxide phthalocyanine monolayers on Au (111), Surface Science, Volume 628, October 2014
  • Yushen Zhang, Rui Wang, Zhaozhong Qiu, Xiaohong Wu, Yang Li, Growth of a-axis oriented vanadium dioxide polycrystals on glass substrates, Materials Letters, Volume 131, 15 September 2014
  • Cangji Shi, X.-Grant Chen, Effect of vanadium on hot deformation and microstructural evolution of 7150 aluminum alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 613, 8 September 2014
  • Reddeppa Nadimicherla, Yueli Liu, Keqiang Chen, Wen Chen, Effect of polyethylene glycol on vanadium oxide nanotubes in lithium-ion batteries, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 127, 5 September 2014

Vanadium Isotopes


Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotope 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
50V 49.9471585 1.4(4)×1017 a 6+
51V 50.9439595 Stable 7/2-