Chromium Elemental Symbol
Chromium





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Chrome Chrom Cromo Crômo Cromo Krom

Chromium(Cr) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolChromium is a Block D, Group 6, Period 4 element. Chromium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Chromium's shells is 2, 8, 13, 1 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s1. The chromium atom has a radius of 128.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-47-3, chromium has a lustrous steel-gray appearance. Elemental ChromiumChromium is the hardest metal element in the periodic table. The most common source of chromium is chromite ore (FeCr2O4). Chromium was first discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in 1797. Due to its various colorful compounds, Chromium was named after the Greek word 'chroma' meaning color.


High Purity (99.999%) Chromium Oxide (Cr2O3) PowderChromium's hardness and high resistance to corrosion make it ideal for alloying and steel producing applications. Steel can be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding chromium to form stainless steel. High Purity (99.99%) Chromium (Cr) Sputtering TargetWhen chromium is added to glass or ceramic glazes, it produces a brilliant green color. Chromium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Chromium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Chromium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Although chromium metal is an essential trace element, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is especially toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Safety data for Chromium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Chromium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Cr Melting Point: 2180 K, 1907 °C, 3465 °F
Atomic Number: 24 Boiling Point: 2944 K, 2671 °C, 4840 °F
Atomic Weight: 51.9961 Density: 7.19 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.3 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 6, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.46 kJ/kg K
    Heat of Vaporization 341.8 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 15.3 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 24 Thermal Conductivity: 93.9 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 24 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 4.9 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 28 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 125 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d54s1 Electronegativity: 1.66 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 128 pm Tensile Strength: 282 MPa
Covalent Radius: 139±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 23.35 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 200.pm Young's Modulus: 279 GPa
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 (strongly acidic oxide) Shear Modulus: 115 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 160 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: 0.21
Magnetic Ordering: AFM Mohs Hardness: 8.5
1st Ionization Energy: 652.87 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 1060 MN m-2
2nd Ionization Energy: 1590.64 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 1120 MN m-2
3rd Ionization Energy: 2987.21 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5940 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-47-3 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 30 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 22412 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 4 ppb
PubChem CID: 23976 Abundance in universe, by weight: 15000 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010944 Abundance in universe, by atom: 400 ppb
EC Number: 231-157-5 Discovered By: Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1797
SMILES Identifier: [Cr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Cr Other Names: Chrom, Cromo, Krom, Crômio
InChI Key: VYZAMTAEIAYCRO-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Chromium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Chromium Balls
Chromium Bands
Chromium Bars
Chromium Bits
Chromium Board
Chromium Briquette
Chromium Capsules
Chromium Chips
Chromium Chunk
Chromium Circles
Chromium Coil
Chromium Coins
Chromium Concentrate
Chromium Crucibles
Chromium Cubes
Chromium Cylinder
Chromium Disc
Chromium Dust
Chromium Flake
Chromium Flanges
Chromium Foil
Chromium Fragments
Chromium Grain
Chromium Granules
Chromium Grit
Chromium Ingot
Chromium Lump
Chromium Mesh
Chromium Metal
Chromium Microfoil
Chromium Microleaf
Chromium Nugget
Chromium Particles
Chromium Parts
Chromium Pebbles
Chromium Pellets
Chromium Pieces
Chromium Pills
Chromium Plate
Chromium Powder
Chromium Precipitate
Chromium Prism
Chromium Puck
Chromium Residue
Chromium Ribbon
Chromium Rings
Chromium Rocks
Chromium Rod
Chromium Samples
Chromium Scraps
Chromium Segments
Chromium Shaving
Chromium Sheets
Chromium Shot
Chromium Sleeves
Chromium Slug
Chromium Specimens
Chromium Spheres
Chromium Spring
Chromium Strip
Chromium Tape
Chromium Tube
Chromium Wafer
Chromium Wire
Ultra Thin Chromium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Aluminum Chromium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Copper Magnesium Chromium Zinc Sputtering Target
Aluminum Manganese Chromium Sputtering Target
Aluminum Silicon Copper Magnesium Chromium Sputtering Target
Chromium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Chromium Boride CrB Sputtering Target
Chromium Boron Sputtering Target
Chromium Carbide Sputtering Targets
Chromium Copper Sputtering Target
Chromium Diboride Sputtering Target
Chromium Disilicide Sputtering Target
Chromium Doped Silicon Monoxide Sputtering Target
Chromium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Chromium Manganese Sputtering Target
Chromium Molybdenum Tantalum Sputtering Target
Chromium Nickel Sputtering Target
Chromium Nitride Sputtering Targets
Chromium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Chromium Oxide Sputtering Target
Chromium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Chromium Selenide Sputtering Target
Chromium Silicide Sputtering Target
Chromium Silicon Sputtering Target
Chromium Sputtering Target
Chromium Sulfide Sputtering Target
Chromium Telluride Sputtering Target
Chromium Trioxide Sputtering Targets
Chromium Vanadium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Iron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Chromium Tantalum Boron Sputtering Target
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Sputtering Target
Iron Chromium Sputtering Target
Lanthanum Strontium Chromite Sputtering Target (LSC)
Molybdenum Chromium Sputtering Target
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Sputtering Target
Nickel Chromium Silicon Sputtering Target
Nickel Chromium Sputtering Target
Titanium Aluminum Chromium Sputtering Target
Titanium Chromium Sputtering Target
Vanadium Chromium Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Chromium Oxide Nanopowder
Chromium Oxide Particles
Chromium Oxide Pellets
Chromium Oxide Pieces
Chromium Oxide Powder
Chromium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Chromium Oxide Shot
Chromium Oxide Sputtering Target
Chromium Oxide Tablets
Chromium Oxide/Silicon Oxide Pieces
Chromium Trioxide Flakes
Chromium Trioxide Sputtering Targets


Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Chromium Antimonide
Chromium Arsenide
Chromium Doped Silicon Oxide
Chromium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Cr:YAG)
Chromium, Erbium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet
Chromium Phosphide
Chromium Selenide
Chromium Silicide CrSi2
Chromium Silicide Cr3Si
Chromium Sulfide
Chromium Telluride
CTH:YAG (Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG)
Ruby Powder
Ruby Sheet
Ruby Spheres
Isotopes

Chromium-50 Oxide Isotope
Chromium-52 Oxide Isotope
Chromium-53 Isotope
Chromium-53 Oxide Isotope
Chromium-54 Oxide Isotope


Alloys

Aluminum Chromium Alloy
Aluminum Manganese Chromium Alloy
Aluminum Zinc Magnesium Copper Chromium Alloy
Chrome-Plated Tungsten Rods
Chromium Aluminium Yttrium Alloy
Chromium Aluminium Yttrium  Alloy Particles
Chromium Cobalt Metal
Chromium Cobalt Alloy
Chromium Cobalt Iron
Chromium Cobalt Nickel
Chromium Cobalt Platinum
Chromium Cobalt Platinum Tantalum
Chromium Cobalt Tantalum
Chromium Copper Alloy
Chromium Iron Carbon Silicon  Alloy Particles
Chromium Iron Carbon Silicon Alloy Powder
Chromium Iron Nickel
Chromium Iron Tantalum Alloy
Chromium Iron Titanium Alloy
Chromium Iron Yttrium Alloy
Chromium Manganese Palladium
Chromium Manganese Platinum
Chromium Molybdenum Metal
Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Chromium Nickel Metal
Chromium Nickel Alloy
Chromium Nickel Copper Alloy
Chromium Nickel Silicon
Chromium Nickel Silicon Alloy
Chromium Nickel Silicon Metal
Chromium Nickel Tungsten Alloy
Chromium Ruthenium
Chromium Silicon Alloy
Chromium Tin Alloy
Chromium Tin Metal
Chromium Titanium Alloy
Chromium Vanadium Alloy
Chromium Vanadium Metal
Chromium Yttrium Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Aluminum Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Foam
Cobalt Chromium Honeycomb
Cobalt Chromium Sponge
Cobalt Chromium Wool
Cobalt Chromium Metals Alloy Particles
Cobalt Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Cobalt Chromium Nickel Iron Molybdenum Manganese
Cobalt Chromium Transition Metals Alloy Powder
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Iron Manganese Foil
Cobalt Chromium Tungsten Nickel Manganese
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Alloy
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Titanium
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Tungsten Titanium
Cobalt Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Copper Chromium Alloy
Copper Chromate
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Particles
Copper Chromium Zirconium Alloy Powder
Ferro Chromium
Hastelloy B Alloy
Hastelloy C-22 Alloy
Hastelloy C-276 Alloy
Hastelloy C276 Foil
Hastelloy X Alloy
Havar Alloy Foil
Inconel 600 Alloy
Inconel 601 Alloy
Inconel 718 Alloy
Inconel 825 Alloy
Inconel 925 Alloy
Inconel X-750 Alloy
Inconel Crucible
Iron Chromium
Iron Chromium Foam
Iron Chromium Honeycomb
Iron Chromium Sponge
Iron Chromium Wool
Iron Chromium Aluminum Foam
Iron Chromium Aluminum Honeycomb
Iron Chromium Aluminum Sponge
Iron Chromium Aluminum Wool
Iron Chromium Carbon Alloy Particles
Iron Chromium Carbon Alloy Powder
Iron Chromium Molybdenum Foil
Iron Chromium Nickel Alloy
Iron Chromium Nickel Aluminum
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Alloy
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Molybdenum Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Copper Titanium Niobium
Iron Chromium Nickel Manganese Molybdenum
Iron Chromium Nickel Molybdenum
Iron Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Aluminum
Iron Chromium Nickel Titanium Molybdenum
Iron Manangese Chromium Molybdenum Nitrogen
Molybdenum Chromium Alloy
Nickel Chromium Alloy
Nickel Chromium Foam
Nickel Chromium Honeycomb
Nickel Chromium Sponge
Nickel Chromium Wool
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Foam
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Honeycomb
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Sponge
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Wool
Nickel Chromium Aluminum Cobalt Alloy
Nickel Chromium Boron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Canes
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Cobalt Molybdenum Titanium Aluminum Iron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Foil
Nickel Chromium Iron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Iron Molybdenum Alloy
Nickel Chromium Iron Silicon Boron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Iron Silicon Boron Alloy Particles
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Boron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Boron Alloy Particles
Nickel Chromium Microfoil
Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Iron Alloy
Nickel Chromium Pellets
Nickel Chromium Tungsten Alloy
Nickel Cobalt Chromium Alloy
Nickel Iron Chromium Alloy
Nickel Iron Chromium Foam
Nickel Iron Chromium Honeycomb
Nickel Iron Chromium Sponge
Nickel Iron Chromium Wool
Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Alloy
Alloys, Continued

Nickel Iron Chromium Molybdenum Titanium Alloy
Nickel Molybdenum Chromium Iron Alloy
Nickel Molybdenum Iron Chromium Alloy
Niobium Titanium Chromium Aluminum Alloy
Palladium Chromium Foil
Stainless Steel Electrodes
Stainless Steel Foam
Stainless Steel Foil
Stainless Steel Insulated Wire
Stainless Steel Mesh
Stainless Steel Powder
Stainless Steel Shot
Stainless Steel Tube
Stainless Steel Wire
Titanium Chromium Alloy
Titanium Vanadium Chromium Aluminium Foil
Tungsten Chromium Alloy
Vanadium Chromium Alloy


Compounds

Ammonium Chromate
Ammonium Chromium(III) Sulfate Dodecahydrate
Ammonium Dichromate
Barium(V) Chromate Ba3Cr2O8
Barium(VI) Chromate BaCrO4
Cadmium Chromate
Calcium Chromate
Calcium Lanthanum Chromite
Cesium Chromate
Chromium Acetate
Chromium Acetate Solution
Chromium(III) Acetate Hydroxide
Chromium Boride CrB
Chromium Diboride CrB2
Chromium Boride Cr2B
Chromium Boride Cr5B3
Chromium Bromide CrBr2
Chromium Bromide CrBr3
Chromium(III) Bromide Hexahydrate
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2
Chromium Carbide Cr7C3
Chromium Carbide Cr23C6
Chromium Carbide Powder
Chromium Carbonate
Chromium(II) Chloride
Chromium Chloride Solution
Chromium(III) Chloride
Chromium(III) Chloride Hexahydrate
Chromium(III) Chloride Hydrate
Chromium Difluoride
Chromium Fluoride
Chromium Fluoride, Ultra Dry
Chromium(III) Fluoride Tetrahydrate
Chromium(II) Iodide
Chromium(III) Iodide
Chromium Nitrate
Chromium Nitrate Solution
Chromium Nitride CrN
Chromium Nitride Cr2N
Chromium Oxide
Chromium Perchlorate Hexahydrate
Chromium Phosphate
Chromium Phosphate Hydrate
Chromium Potassium Sulfate
Chromium Potassium Sulfate Dodecahydrate
Chromium Potassium Sulfate Solution
Chromium Silicon Oxide
Chromium Sulfate
Chromium Sulfate Basic
Chromium Sulfate Hydrate
Chromium Sulfate Solution
Chromium Trioxide
Chromyl Chloride
Cobalt Chromate
Copper Chromate
Doped Lanthanum Chromite Paste
Iron Chromate
Iron Chromite
Lanthanum Strontium Chromite
Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Chromite Paste
Lead Chromate
Lead Chromate Oxide
Lithium Chromate
Lithium Chromate Hydrate
Magnesium Chromate
Mercury(I) Chromate
Mercury(II) Chromate
Nickel Chromate
Pigment Yellow 34
Potassium Chlorochromate
Potassium Chromate
Potassium Hexacyanochromate(III)
Rubidium Chromate
Rubidium Dichromate
Silver Dichromate
Sodium Chromate
Sodium Chromate Tetrahydrate
Sodium Dichromate
Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate
Strontium Dichromate
Thallium Dichromate
Tin Chromate
Zinc Chromate


Nanomaterials

Chromium Carbide Nanopowder
Chromium Cobalt Iron Nanoparticles
Chromium Nanoparticles
Chromium Nanoprisms
Chromium Nanorods
Chromium Oxide Nanopowder
Chromium Nitrate Nanopowder
Nickel Chromium Oxide Nanopowder
Nickel Cobalt Chromium Nanoparticles


Organometallic Compounds

[1,1'-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene] tetracarbonylchromium(0)
Benzene-chromium(0) Tricarbonyl
Bis(benzene)chromium(0)
Bis(cyclopentadienyl)chromium(II)
Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)chromium(II)
Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)Chromium(II)
Bis(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl) manganese(II)
Bis(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)Chromium(II)
Chromium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Chromium(II) Acetate, Dimer Monohydrate
Chromium Acetylacetonate
Chromium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Complex
Chromium(0) Hexacarbonyl
Chromium Nicotinate
Chromium(III) Picolinate
Chromium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Chromium Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5 -heptanedionate)
Dicarbonyl(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) Chromium(V) Dimer
[N,N'-Bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidene) -1,2-phenylenediaminochromium-di-THF]tetracarbonylcobaltate
Potassium Chromium(III) Oxalate Trihydrate
Potassium Trioxalatochromate
Reinecke Salt
Tetramethylammonium (1-hydroxyethylidene) pentacarbonylchromium
Tris(acetonitrile)tricarbonylchromium(0)


Recent Research & Development for Chromium

  • Use of modified wheat bran for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Kaya K, Pehlivan E, Schmidt C, Bahadir M. Food Chem. 2014.
  • Reduction of hexavalent chromium by digested oat bran proteins. Tsopmo A, Gao Q, Baakdah MM. Food Chem. 2014 Jun.
  • Speciation of chromium and its distribution in tea leaves and tea infusion using titanium dioxide nanotubes packed microcolumn coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2014 | first author:Chen S
  • Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) assembled on magnetic Fe3O4/graphene for Chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Lv X
  • Bacterial and osteoblast behavior on titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy and stainless steel treated with alkali and heat: A comparative study for potential orthopedic applications. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 | first author:Hu X
  • Acute Toxicity by Water Containing Hexavalent or Trivalent Chromium in Native Brazilian Fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus: Anatomopathological Alterations and Mortality. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014 | first author:Castro MP
  • Antioxidant effect of propolis against exposure to chromium in Cyprinus carpio. Environ Toxicol. 2014 create date:2011/11/05 | first author:Yonar ME
  • Acute and chronic toxicity of chromium and cadmium to the tropical cladoceran pseudosida ramosa and the implications for ecotoxicological studies. Environ Toxicol. 2014 | first author:Freitas EC
  • Formation of oxo-centered trinuclear chromium carboxylate complexes and hydrolysis of Cr3 as established by paramagnetic (2)H NMR spectroscopy. J Inorg Biochem. 2014 | first author:Royer AC
  • Chromium stress response effect on signal transduction and expression of signaling genes in rice. Physiol Plant. 2014 create date:2013/09/17 | first author:Trinh NN
  • Enhanced adsorption of chromium onto activated carbon by microwave-assisted H3PO4 mixed with Fe/Al/Mn activation. J Hazard Mater. 2014 create date:2013/12/24 | first author:Sun Y
  • Highly sensitive detection of chromium (III) ions by resonance Rayleigh scattering enhanced by gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 | first author:Chen M
  • A new heteroleptic oxalate-based compound: poly[[2-(aminomethyl)pyridine]di-μ6-oxalato-chromium(III)potassium(I)]. Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem. 2014 create date:2014/01/09 | first author:Kenfack Tsobnang P.
  • Chromium(III) complexation to natural organic matter: mechanisms and modeling. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 | first author:Gustafsson JP
  • Supplementary Chromium(III) Propionate Complex Does Not Protect Against Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Fed Rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Król E
  • Kinetics for adsorptive removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by ferri hydroxide/oxohydroxides. Ecotoxicology. 2014 | first author:Yu XZ
  • Assessment of chromium efficacy on germination, root elongation, and coleoptile growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth periods. Environ Monit Assess. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Dotaniya ML
  • High Concentrations of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Alter Iron Homeostasis in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 create date:2014/01/15 | first author:Suh M
  • Phytoremediation Potential and Nutrient Status of Barringtonia acutangula Gaerth. Tree Seedlings Grown Under Different Chromium (CrVI) Treatments. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014 create date:2014/01/09 | first author:Kumar D
  • Sensitive and selective electrochemical detection of chromium(vi) based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanotube arrays. Jin W, Wu G, Chen A. Analyst. 2014.

Chromium Isotopes


Naturally occurring chromium (Cr) has four stable isotopes; 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr, and 54Cr. 52Cr is the most abundant (83.79%). 50Cr decays by β+β+ to 50Ti with a half-life of (more than) 1.8x1017 years.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
50Cr 49.9460442 Observationally Stable 0+
52Cr 51.9405075 Stable 0+
53Cr 52.9406494 Stable 3/2-
54Cr 53.9388804 Stable 0+