Cerium Elemental Symbol
Cerium



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Cérium Cer Cerio Cério Cerio Cerium

 

Cerium(Ce) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolCerium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of cerium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f2 6s2. The cerium atom has a radius of 182.5.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 235.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-45-1, cerium has a silvery white appearance. Elemental CeriumCerium is the most abundant of the rare earths metals. It is characterized chemically by having two valence states, the +3 cerous and +4 ceric states. The ceric state is the only non-trivalent rare earth ion stable in aqueous Cerium Bohr Model solutions. It is, therefore, strongly acidic and moderately toxic. It is also a strong oxidizer. The cerous state closely resembles the other trivalent rare earths. Cerium is found in the minerals allanite, bastnasite, hydroxylbastnasite, monazite, rhabdophane, synchysite and zircon. Cerium was first discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, and Wilhelm Hisinger in 1803. It was first isolated by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1839. The element was named after the asteroid Ceres.

Cerium is one of the products manufactured and distributed under the tradename AE Rare Earths. Its numerous commercial applications include metallurgy, glass and glass polishing, ceramics, catalysts, as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells when doped with yttrium, gadolinium or samarium and in phosphors. In steel manufacturing it is used to remove free oxygen and sulfur by forming stable oxysulfides and by tying up undesirable trace elements, such as lead and antimony. It is considered to be the most efficient glass polishing agent for precision optical polishing. It is also used to de-color glass by keeping iron in its ferrous state. The ability of cerium-doped glass to block out ultra violet light is utilized in the manufacturing of medical glassware and aerospace windows. It is also used to prevent polymers from darkening in sunlight and to suppress discoloration of television glass. Cerium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Cerium Oxide (CeO2) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Cerium (Ce) Sputtering TargetCerium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Cerium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Cerium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Cerium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
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  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Cerium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Ce Melting Point: 799 oC, 1470.2 oF, 1072.15 K
Atomic Number: 58 Boiling Point: 3443 oC, 6229.4 oF, 3716.15 K
Atomic Weight: 140.116 Density: 6711  kg m-3
Element Category: lanthanide Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.55 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.049 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
    Heat of Vaporization 95 K-cal/gm atom at 3426°C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.12 Cal/gm mole
Electrons: 58 Thermal Conductivity: 0.113/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 58 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (γ, poly) 6.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 82 Electrical Resistivity: 75.0 microhm-cm @ 25 °C
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f5d6s2 Electronegativity: 1.1 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 181.8 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 204±9 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.94 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 235 pm Young's Modulus: (γ form) 33.6 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (γ form) 13.5 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (γ form) 21.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: Cubic Poisson Ratio: (γ form) 0.24
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 2.5
1st Ionization Energy: 534.4 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: 270 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1050 kJ·mol−1 Brinell Hardness: 412 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 1949 kJ·mol−1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2100 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-45-1 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22411 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23974 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00010924 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.09 ppb
EC Number: 231-154-9 Discovered By: Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, Wilhelm Hisinger
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1803
SMILES Identifier: [Ce]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ce Other Names: Cerio
InChI Key: GWXLDORMOJMVQZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Cerium


Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228-H302-H312-H315-H319-H332-H335
Hazard Codes F, Xn
Risk Codes 11-20/21/22-36/37/38
Safety Precautions 16-26-36/37/39
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information UN 1333 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables  

Cerium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Compounds

Barium Yttrium Tungsten Oxide
Calcium Cerium Fluoride
Cerium Acetate
Cerium(III) Acetate Sesquihydrate
Cerium Acetate Solution
Cerium Ammonium Nitrate
Cerium(IV) Ammonium Sulfate Dihydrate
Cerium(III) Ammonium Nitrate Tetrahydrate
Cerium Boride
Cerium Bromide
Cerium Bromide Heptahydrate
Cerium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Cerium(III) Bromide Hydrate
Cerium Carbide
Cerium Carbonate
Cerium Chloride
Cerium Chloride Heptahydrate
Cerium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Cerium Chloride Solution
Cerium Fluoride CeF3
Cerium Fluoride CeF4
Cerium(IV) Fluoride Hydrate
Cerium(II) Hydride CeH2
Cerium(III) Hydride CeH3
Cerium Hydroxide
Cerium(II) Iodide
Cerium(III) Iodide
Cerium(III) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Cerium Magnesium Aluminate, Terbium doped
Cerium Molybdenum Oxide
Cerium Nitrate
Cerium Nitrate Hexahydrate
Cerium Nitrate Solution
Cerium Nitride
Cerium Oxide
Cerium Oxide Stabilized with Yttrium Oxide
Cerium Perchlorate Solution
Cerium(III) Perchlorate Hexahydrate
Cerium(III) Phosphate
Cerium Selenate
Cerium Silicide
Cerium Sulfate
Cerium Sulfate Hydrate
Cerium Sulfate Octate
Cerium Sulfate Solution
Cerium Tungstate
Cerium Tungsten Oxide
Cerium Vanadium Oxide
Cerium Zirconium Oxide
Cesium Chloride Lanthanum Chloride Buffer Solution
Gadolinia Doped Ceria Paste
Lanthanum Strontium Manganite - Gadolinium Doped Ceria (LSM20-GDC10)
Yttrium-doped Barium Cerate


Organometallic Compounds

Cerium(III) 2,4-pentanedionate Hydrate
Cerium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Cerium Acetylacetonate
Cerium Acetylacetonate Hydrate
Cerium(IV) 2-Methoxyethoxide
Cerium(IV) Isopropoxide
Cerium(IV) Isopropoxide Isopropanol Adduct
Cerium(IV) 2-Methoxyethoxide
Cerium Octoate
Cerium Oxalate
Cerium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Cerium Trifluoromethanesulfonate Hydrate
Tris(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl) cerium(III)
Tris[N,N-bis(trimethylsilyl)amide]cerium(III)



Crystal/ Semiconductor Materials

Ce:BaTiO3
Ce:Lu2SiO5
Ce:YAG - Cerium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Cerium Phosphide
Cerium Selenide
Cerium Sulfide
Cerium Telluride
Gadolinium Doped Ceria
Lutetium Aluminum Garnet
LYSO Scintillation Crystal
Samaria Doped Ceria
Scintilation Ce:LSO
Scintilation Ce:YAG
Scintilation Ce:YSO
Yttria Doped Ceria
Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite doped with Cerium

Nanomaterials

Aluminum Cerium Oxide Nanopowder
C-MITE Cerium Oxide Nanopowder
Cerium Nanoparticles
Cerium Oxide, Calcium doped Nanopowder
Cerium Oxide, Gadolinium doped Nanopowder
Cerium Oxide, Samarium doped Nanopowder
Cerium Oxide, Yttria doped Nanopowder
Cerium Zirconium Oxide Nanopowder


Sputtering Targets

Barium Cerium Yttrium Zirconate Sputtering Target
Cerium Boride Sputtering Target
Cerium Copper Sputtering Target
Cerium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Cerium Gadolinium Sputtering Target
Cerium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cerium Oxide Sputtering Target
Cerium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cerium Samarium Sputtering Target
Cerium Selenide Sputtering Target
Cerium Silver Sputtering Target
Cerium Sputtering Target
Cerium Telluride Sputtering Target
Cerium Titanium Sputtering Target
Gadolinium Cerium Sputtering Target
Praseodymium Cerium Manganate Sputtering Target
Samaria-doped Ceria (SDC) Sputtering Target
Yttria Doped Ceria Sputtering Target
Zirconium Cerium Sputtering Target


Oxide Forms

Cerium-55 Concentrate
Cerium(IV) Oxide Particles
Cerium(IV) Oxide Pellets
Cerium(IV) Oxide Pieces
Cerium(IV) Oxide Powder
Cerium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Cerium(IV) Oxide, Samarium doped Pellets
Cerium(IV) Oxide Shot
Cerium Oxide Sputtering Target
Cerium(IV) Oxide Tablets
Cerium Oxide Polishing Powder
Cerium Oxide, Praseodymium doped


Recent Research & Development for Cerium

  • Toxicity and bio-accumulation of inhaled cerium oxide nanoparticles in CD1 mice. Aalapati S, Ganapathy S, Manapuram S, Anumolu G, Prakya BM. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Nov.
  • Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats. Gosens I, Mathijssen LE, Bokkers BG, Muijser H, Cassee FR. Nanotoxicology. 2014 Sep.
  • The electrochemical behavior of cerium (III/IV) complexes: Thermodynamics, kinetics and applications in synthesis. - NA Piro, JR Robinson, PJ Walsh, EJ Schelter - Coordination Chemistry 2014 - Elsevier
  • Adsorptional removal of methylene blue by guar gum-cerium (IV) tungstate hybrid cationic exchanger. Gupta VK, Pathania D, Singh P, Kumar A, Rathore BS. Carbohydr Polym. 2014
  • The role of chemical interactions between thorium, cerium, and lanthanum in lymphocyte toxicity. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2014 create date:2013/08/13 | first author:Oliveira MS
  • Wet Air Oxidation of phenol over Pt and Ru catalysts supported on cerium-based oxides: Resistance to fouling and kinetic modelling. S Keav, AE de los Monteros, J Barbier Jr… - Applied Catalysis 2014 - Elsevier
  • Sustained inhibition of neovascularization in vldlr(-/-) mice following intravitreal injection of cerium oxide nanoparticles and the role of the ASK1-P38/JNK-NF-κB pathway. Biomaterials. 2014 create date:2013/10/22 | first author:Cai X
  • Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Modify the Antioxidative Stress Enzyme Activities and Macromolecule Composition in Rice Seedlings. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Rico CM
  • A Cerium(IV)-Carbon Multiple Bond. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013 create date:2013/11/28 | first author:Gregson M
  • High-Temperature, High-Pressure Hydrothermal Synthesis, Crystal Structures, and Spectroscopic Studies of a Uranium(IV) Phosphate (Na10U2P6O24) and the Isotypic Cerium(IV) Phosphate (Na10Ce2P6O24). Inorg Chem. 2013 create date:2013/11/15 | first author:Lai YH
  • Pulmonary cerium dioxide nanoparticle exposure differentially impairs coronary and mesenteric arteriolar reactivity. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013 create date:2013/05/07 | first author:Minarchick VC
  • Electrochemical determination of BCR/ABL fusion gene based on in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles and cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013 | first author:Li S
  • Thermopower enhancement by encapsulating cerium in clathrate cages. Nat Mater. | first author:Prokofiev A
  • A positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation of europium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles. Nanoscale. | first author:Thorat AV
  • Custom Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Protect against a Free Radical Mediated Autoimmune Degenerative Disease in the Brain. ACS Nano. 2013 create date:2013/11/26 | first author:Heckman KL
  • Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Quality of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Grains. J Agric Food
  • Structure and special chemical reactivity of interface-stabilized cerium oxide nanolayers on TiO(2)(110). Nanoscale. 2013 | first author:Agnoli S
  • Electroanalytical evaluation of antioxidant activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles by nanoparticle collisions at microelectrodes. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 | first author:Sardesai NP
  • Construction of heterocyclic structures by trivalent cerium salts promoted bond forming reactions. Properzi R, Marcantoni E. Chem Soc Rev. 2013 Nov 11.
  • The role of chemical interactions between thorium, cerium, and lanthanum in lymphocyte toxicity. Oliveira MS, Duarte IM, Paiva AV, Yunes SN, Almeida CE, Mattos RC, Sarcinelli PN. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2014.

Cerium Isotopes


Naturally occurring cerium (Ce) has four stable isotopes: 136Ce, 138Ce, 140Ce, and 142Ce.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
136Ce 135.907172 Observationally Stable 0+
138Ce 137.905991 Observationally Stable 0+
140Ce 139.9054387 Stable 0+
142Ce 141.909244 Observationally Stable 0+