Terbium Elemental Symbol

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Terbium Terbium Terbio Térbio Terbio Terbium

Terbium Bohr ModelTerbium Element SymbolTerbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Terbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f9 6s2. The terbium atom has a radius of 177.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 221.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-27-9, terbium has a silvery-white appearance. Terbium was discovered and first isolated by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1842. It is named after "Ytterby", the town in Sweden where it was discovered..

Elemental TerbiumTerbium is primarily used in phosphors, particularly in fluorescent lamps and as the high intensity green emitter used in projection televisions, such as the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tb:YAG) variety. Terbium responds efficiently in x-ray excitation and is, therefore, used as an x-ray phosphor. Terbium alloys are also used in magneto-optic recording films, such as Tb-Fe-Co. Terbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Terbium (Tb) Sputtering TargetTerbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. High Purity (99.999%) Terbium Oxide (Tb4O7) PowderFluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Terbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Terbium is considered to be somewhat toxic. Safety data for Terbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.

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Terbium Properties

Symbol: Tb Melting Point: 1356 oC, 2472.8 oF, 1629.15 K 
Atomic Number: 65 Boiling Point: 3230 oC, 5846 oF, 3503.15 K
Atomic Weight: 158.93 Density: 8219 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.65 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0437 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 70 K-Cal/gm atom at 3123 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.90 Cal/gm mole 
Electrons: 65 Thermal Conductivity: 0.111 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 65 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 10.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 94 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.150 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f96s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 177 pm Tensile Strength: 60 MPa
Covalent Radius: 194±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.91 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 221 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 55.7 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 22.1 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 38.7 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.261
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 565.77 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 863 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1111.52 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 677 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2114.01 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2620 m·s−1
CAS Number: 7440-27-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22397 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23958 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00011256 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-137-6 Discovered By: Carl Gustaf Mosander
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1842
SMILES Identifier: [Tb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Tb Other Names: Terbio, Térbio

Terbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials

Recent Research & Development for Terbium

  • Žaneta Dohnalová, Nataliia Gorodylova, Petra Šulcová, Milan Vlcek, Synthesis and characterization of terbium-doped SrSnO3 pigments, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
  • Duong Thi Mai Huong, Le Thi Trang, Le Van Vu, Nguyen Ngoc Long, Structural and optical properties of terbium doped lanthanum orthophosphate nanowires synthesized by hydrothermal method, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 602, 25 July 2014
  • N.K. Za'aba, M.A. Mohd Sarjidan, W.H. Abd. Majid, Eny Kusrini, Muhammad I. Saleh, Junction properties and conduction mechanism of new terbium complexes with triethylene glycol ligand for potential application in organic electronic device, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 7, July 2014
  • Wei Sun, Jinzeng Wang, Houting Liu, Siyuan Chang, Xiaoting Qin, Zhiliang Liu, A luminescent terbium metal-organic framework for selective sensing of nitroaromatic compounds in high sensitivity, Materials Letters, Volume 126, 1 July 2014
  • T. Palasyuk, S. Saxena, Patryk Zaleski-Ejgierd, M. Tkacz, High pressure studies of terbium trihydride. X-ray, Raman and DFT investigations, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 597, 5 June 2014
  • Youngku Sohn, Structural and spectroscopic characteristics of terbium hydroxide/oxide nanorods and plates, Ceramics International, Available online 29 May 2014
  • Fumihiro Nishimura, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa, Masayuki Takashima, Auger electron spectroscopy for chemical state and quantitative analysis of terbium containing oxide fluoride glasses, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Volume 160, April 2014
  • G.L. Sharipov, A.A. Tukhbatullin, M.R. Muftakhutdinov, A.M. Abdrakhmanov, Luminescence of OD radical as an evidence for water decomposition under destruction of the deuterated terbium sulfate crystal hydrate, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 148, April 2014
  • Leonid N. Bochkarev, Anton V. Rozhkov, Vasilii A. Ilichev, Gleb A. Abakumov, Mikhail N. Bochkarev, Green-light emitting norbornene based terbium-containing copolymers. Synthesis, photo- and electroluminescent properties, Synthetic Metals, Volume 190, April 2014
  • Wei Lü, Yongchao Jia, Wenzhen Lv, Qi Zhao, Hongpeng You, Cerium-, terbium- and europium-activated CaScAlSiO6 as a full-color emitting phosphor, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 147, March 2014
  • Shyichuk, S. Lis, G. Meinrath, Structure modeling of terbium doped strontium-lanthanum borate, Journal of Rare Earths, Volume 32, Issue 3, March 2014
  • Davesnne, A. Ziani, C. Labbé, P. Marie, C. Frilay, X. Portier, Energy transfer mechanism between terbium and europium ions in zinc oxide and zinc silicates thin films, Thin Solid Films, Volume 553, 28 February 2014
  • Ziani, C. Davesnne, C. Labbé, J. Cardin, P. Marie, C. Frilay, S. Boudin, X. Portier, Annealing effects on the photoluminescence of terbium doped zinc oxide films, Thin Solid Films, Volume 553, 28 February 2014
  • Xiaomiao Wang, Huili Chen, Hua Li, An optical material for the detection of ß-hydroxybutyrate based on a terbium complex, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 4, February 2014
  • Felix Benz, Andreas Gonser, Reinhart Völker, Thomas Walther, Jan-Thomas Mosebach, Bianka Schwanda, Nicolas Mayer, Gunther Richter, Horst P. Strunk, Concentration quenching of the luminescence from trivalent thulium, terbium, and erbium ions embedded in an AlN matrix, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 145, January 2014
  • G. Cabello, A. Araneda, L. Lillo, C. Caro, C. Venegas, M. Tejos, B. Chornik, Application of photochemical method in the synthesis of Ga2O3-X thin films co-doped with terbium and europium, Solid State Sciences, Volume 27, January 2014
  • Lasheng Jiang, Ke Tang, Xiaoping Ding, Qianming Wang, Zhan Zhou, Rui Xiao, Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 33, Issue 8, 1 December 2013
  • F. Tárkányi, S. Takács, F. Ditrói, A. Hermanne, A.V. Ignatyuk, Activation cross-sections of longer-lived radioisotopes of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on terbium up to 50 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 316, 1 December 2013
  • Lidia Zur, Marta Soltys, Joanna Pisarska, Wojciech A. Pisarski, Absorption and luminescence properties of terbium ions in heavy metal glasses, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 578, 25 November 2013
  • Mozhgan Khorasani-Motlagh, Meissam Noroozifar, Sona Niroomand, Asieh Moodi, Photoluminescence studies of a Terbium(III) complex as a fluorescent probe for DNA detection, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 143, November 2013

Terbium Isotopes

Naturally occurring terbium (Tb) has one stable isotope: 159Tb

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
159Tb 158.9253468 Stable 3/2+