Terbium Elemental Symbol
Terbium



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Terbium Terbium Terbio Térbio Terbio Terbium

Terbium Bohr ModelTerbium Element SymbolTerbium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Terbium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Xe]4f9 6s2. The terbium atom has a radius of 177.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 221.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-27-9, terbium has a silvery-white appearance. Terbium was discovered and first isolated by Carl Gustaf Mosander in 1842. It is named after "Ytterby", the town in Sweden where it was discovered..

Elemental TerbiumTerbium is primarily used in phosphors, particularly in fluorescent lamps and as the high intensity green emitter used in projection televisions, such as the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Tb:YAG) variety. Terbium responds efficiently in x-ray excitation and is, therefore, used as an x-ray phosphor. Terbium alloys are also used in magneto-optic recording films, such as Tb-Fe-Co. Terbium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. High Purity (99.999%) Terbium (Tb) Sputtering TargetTerbium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. High Purity (99.999%) Terbium Oxide (Tb4O7) PowderFluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Terbium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Terbium is considered to be somewhat toxic. Safety data for Terbium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Terbium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Tb Melting Point: 1356 oC, 2472.8 oF, 1629.15 K 
Atomic Number: 65 Boiling Point: 3230 oC, 5846 oF, 3503.15 K
Atomic Weight: 158.93 Density: 8219 kg/m³
Element Category: Lanthanides Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.65 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f Specific Heat: 0.0437 Cal/g/K @ 25 °C
    Heat of Vaporization 70 K-Cal/gm atom at 3123 °C
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 3.90 Cal/gm mole 
Electrons: 65 Thermal Conductivity: 0.111 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Protons: 65 Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (α, poly) 10.3 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 94 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.150 µΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f96s2 Electronegativity: 1.2 Paulings
Atomic Radius: 177 pm Tensile Strength: 60 MPa
Covalent Radius: 194±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 28.91 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 221 pm Young's Modulus: (α form) 55.7 GPa
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: (α form) 22.1 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: (α form) 38.7 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: (α form) 0.261
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 565.77 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: 863 MPa
2nd Ionization Energy: 1111.52 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 677 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2114.01 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2620 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-27-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22397 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23958 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00011256 Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: 231-137-6 Discovered By: Carl Gustaf Mosander
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1842
SMILES Identifier: [Tb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Tb Other Names: Terbio, Térbio
InChI Key: GZCRRIHWUXGPOV-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Terbium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials



Recent Research & Development for Terbium

  • Folate receptor targeted alpha-therapy using terbium-149. Müller C, Reber J, Haller S, Dorrer H, Köster U, Johnston K, Zhernosekov K, Türler A, Schibli R. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014.
  • Luminescence enhancement of terbium(III) perchlorate by 2,2'-dipyridyl on bis(benzylsulfinyl)methane complex and luminescence mechanism. Feng SY, Li WX, Guo F, Cao XF. Luminescence. 2014 Jan.
  • An efficient optical-electrochemical dual probe for highly sensitive recognition of dopamine based on terbium complex functionalized reduced graphene oxide. Zhou Z, Wang Q. Nanoscale. 2014.
  • Terbium promotes adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of the Smad-dependent TGF-ß/BMP signaling pathway. Liu DD, Ge K, Jin Y, Sun J, Wang SX, Yang MS, Zhang JC. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2014 Mar.
  • Photophysical evaluation of a new functional terbium complex in FRET-based time-resolved homogenous fluoroassays. Cywinski PJ, Nchimi Nono K, Charbonnière LJ, Hammann T, Löhmannsröben HG. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014.
  • THERMOLUMINESCENCE RESPONSES OF TERBIUM-DOPED MAGNESIUM ORTHOSILICATE WITH DIFFERENT SYNTHESIS CONDITIONS. Wang Y, Jiang Y, Chu X, Xu J, Townsend PD. Radiat Prot Dosimetry.
  • Study of yellow luminescence of binary terbium complexes based on 3,3',4,4'-biphthalic anhydride. Lin M, Wang X, Tang Q, An Q, Zeng H, Ling Q. Appl Opt. 2014
  • Fabrication of magnetically separable fluorescent terbium-based MOF nanospheres for highly selective trace-level detection of TNT. Qian JJ, Qiu LG, Wang YM, Yuan YP, Xie AJ, Shen YH. Dalton Trans. 2014 Mar.
  • Influence of Intramolecular f-f Interactions on Nuclear Spin Driven Quantum Tunneling of Magnetizations in Quadruple-Decker Phthalocyanine Complexes Containing Two Terbium or Dysprosium Magnetic Centers. Fukuda T, Matsumura K, Ishikawa N. J Phys Chem A. 2013 Sep.
  • Studies of interaction between terbium(III)-deferasirox and double helix DNA by spectral and electrochemical methods. Shaghaghi M, Dehghan G, Jouyban A, Sistani P, Arvin M. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2014 Feb.
  • Direct Interaction between Terbium Ion and Peroxidase in Horseradish at Different pH Values. Wang L, Zhou Q, Huang X. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2014 Jan.
  • A novel narrow-line red emitting Na2Y2B2O7:Ce(3+),Tb(3+),Eu(3+) phosphor with high efficiency activated by terbium chain for near-UV white LEDs. Wen D, Shi J. Dalton Trans. 2013 Dec.
  • Time-Resolved Probes Based on Guanine/Thymine-Rich DNA-Sensitized Luminescence of Terbium(III). Zhang M, Le HN, Jiang XQ, Yin BC, Ye BC. Anal Chem. 2013 Dec 3.
  • Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence properties of europium-, terbium-, and thulium-doped Ca3Bi(PO4)3 phosphors. Jiao M, Guo N, Lü W, Jia Y, Lv W, Zhao Q, Shao B, You H. Dalton Trans. 2013.
  • Controlling the Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Terbium(III) Phthalocyaninato Triple-Decker Moieties through Spatial Control Using a Fused Phthalocyaninato Ligand. Morita T, Katoh K, Breedlove BK, Yamashita M. Inorg Chem. 2013 Dec.
  • Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids. Jiang L, Tang K, Ding X, Wang Q, Zhou Z, Xiao R. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013 Dec.
  • Influence of Intramolecular f-f Interactions on Nuclear Spin Driven Quantum Tunneling of Magnetizations in Quadruple-Decker Phthalocyanine Complexes Containing Two Terbium or Dysprosium Magnetic Centers. Fukuda T, Matsumura K, Ishikawa N. J Phys Chem A. 2013.
  • Ratiometric Luminescent Detection of Bacterial Spores with Terbium Chelated Semiconducting Polymer Dots. Li Q, Sun K, Chang K, Yu J, Chiu DT, Wu C, Qin W. Anal Chem. 2013.
  • Sensitized terbium(iii) macrocyclic-phthalimide complexes as luminescent pH switches. Chen G, Wardle NJ, Sarris J, Chatterton NP, Bligh SW. Dalton Trans. 2013 Sep.
  • Combined NMR Analysis of Huge Residual Dipolar Couplings and Pseudocontact Shifts in Terbium(III)-Phthalocyaninato Single Molecule Magnets. Damjanovic M, Katoh K, Yamashita M, Enders M. J Am Chem Soc. 2013.

Terbium Isotopes


Naturally occurring terbium (Tb) has one stable isotope: 159Tb

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
159Tb 158.9253468 Stable 3/2+