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About Curium

Curium Bohr

Curium, a radioactive transuranic chemical element, was first synthesized in 1944 by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California at Berkeley. The work was related to the Manhattan Project, so the discovery was kept classified until the end of World War II. The announcement was planned at an American Chemical Society meeting, but Seaborg let the news slip a few days early on a kids’ radio show when a precocious young guest asked if he had discovered any new transuranic elements lately. The name was selected in honor of Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and their pioneering research in radioactivity.

Curium is used as a fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), and as an alpha particle source in alpha particle X-ray spectrometers (APXS). AXPS instruments are primarily used in space exploration missions, and have been included in a number of Mars rovers. Curium is also used in the production of higher transuranic and transactinide elements.

Curium does not occur naturally on Earth and is typically produced by bombarding uranium or plutonium with neutrons in nuclear reactors. The pure element is hard, brittle, malleable, and appears a lustrous silvery white.

Curium Properties

Curium Bohr ModelCurium is a Block P, Group 3, Period 7 element. The number of electrons in each of curium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2. The curium atom has a radius of 174pm. In its elemental form, curium's CAS number is 7440-51-9. Curium is radioactive. It is produced by bombarding uranium or plutonium with neutrons in nuclear reactors. Curium is found in spent nuclear fuel and small amounts are produced for research. Curium was discovered by Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James and Albert Ghiorso at the University of California, Berkeley in 1944. The element was named in honor of Marie and Pierre Curie.

Curium information, including technical data, properties, and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.

Symbol: Cm
Atomic Number: 96
Atomic Weight: 247
Element Category: Actinide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 7, f
Color: silvery-white
Other Names: Curio
Melting Point: 1345 °C, 2453 °F, 1618 K
Boiling Point: 3110 °C, 5630 °F, 3383 K
Density: 13300 kg·m3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Density @ 20°C: 13.5 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 13510 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 15
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): about 32
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 382
Thermal Conductivity: N/A
Thermal Expansion: N/A
Electrical Resistivity: 1.25 µΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Young's Modulus: N/A
Shear Modulus: N/A
Bulk Modulus: N/A
Poisson Ratio: N/A
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.3
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.2
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.7
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 96
Protons: 96
Neutrons: 151
Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
Atomic Radius: 174 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 169±3 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.68
Van der Waals Radius: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 3 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: antiferromagnetic (paramagnetic transition at 52 K)
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Unknown
1st Ionization Energy: 581 kJ·mol-1 (estimated)
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A
CAS Number: 7440-51-9
EC Number: N/A
MDL Number: N/A
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Cm]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Cm
PubChem CID: 23979
ChemSpider ID: 22415
Earth - Total: N/A
Mercury - Total: N/A
Venus - Total: N/A
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: N/A
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: N/A
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: N/A
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: N/A
Stream, ppb by weight: N/A
Stream, ppb by atoms: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: N/A
Universe, ppb by atom: N/A
Discovered By: Glenn Seaborg, Ralph James, Albert Ghiorso
Discovery Date: 1944
First Isolation: Carl Gustaf Mosander (1842)

Curium Isotopes

Curium is an artificial element. It has no stable isotopes.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
232Cm 232 1? min N/A 0+ N/A N/A -
233Cm 233.05077(8) 1# min β+ to 233Am; α to 229Pu 3/2+# N/A 1758.192017 -
234Cm 234.05016(2) 51(12) s β+ to 234Am; α to 230Pu 0+ N/A 1766.785034 -
235Cm 235.05143(22)# 5# min β+ to 235Am; α to 231Pu 5/2+# N/A 1773.598022 -
236Cm 236.05141(22)# 10# min β+ to 236Am; α to 232Pu 0+ N/A 1781.843018 -
237Cm 237.05290(22)# 20# min β+ to 237Am; α to 233Pu 5/2+# N/A 1788.530029 -
238Cm 238.05303(4) 2.4(1) h EC to 238Am; α to 234Pu 0+ N/A 1796.484497 -
239Cm 239.05496(11)# ~2.9 h β+ to 239Am; α to 235Pu (7/2-) N/A 1802.754028 -
240Cm 240.0555295(25) 27(1) d α to 236Pu; EC to 240Am; SF 0+ N/A 1810.295898 -
241Cm 241.0576530(23) 32.8(2) d α to 237Pu; EC to 241Am 1/2+ N/A 1816.385254 -
242Cm 242.0588358(20) 162.8(2) d α to 238Pu; SF 0+ N/A 1823.35498 -
243Cm 243.0613891(22) 29.1(1) y α to 239Pu; EC to 243Am 5/2+ 0.41 1829.04834 -
244Cm 244.0627526(20) 18.10(2) y α to 240Pu; SF 0+ N/A 1835.848999 -
245Cm 245.0654912(22) 8.5(1)×103 y α to 241Pu; SF 7/2+ 0.5 1841.368774 -
246Cm 246.0672237(22) 4.76(4)×103 y α to 242Pu; SF 0+ N/A 1847.826782 -
247Cm 247.070354(5) 1.56(5)×107 y α to 243Pu 9/2- 0.37 1852.983154 -
248Cm 248.072349(5) 3.48(6)×105 y α to 244Pu; SF 0+ N/A 1859.195801 -
249Cm 249.075953(5) 64.15(3) min β- to 249Bk 1/2(+) N/A 1863.90918 -
250Cm 250.078357(12) 8300# y α to 246Pu; β- to 250Bk; SF 0+ N/A 1869.741577 -
251Cm 251.082285(24) 16.8(2) min β- to 251Bk (1/2+) N/A 1874.154785 -
252Cm 252.08487(32)# <1 d β- to 252Bk 0+ N/A 1879.812012 -
Curium Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Curium

  • Solvation effects on isomeric preferences of curium(iii) complexes with multidentate phosphonopropionic acid ligands: CmH(2)PPA(2+) and CmHPPA(+) complexes. Cao Z, Balasubramanian K, Calvert MG, Nitsche H. Inorg Chem. 2009 Oct 19
  • Sensitizing curium luminescence through an antenna protein to investigate biological actinide transport mechanisms. Sturzbecher-Hoehne M, Goujon C, Deblonde GJ, Mason AB, Abergel RJ. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Feb 20
  • Gas-phase energetics of actinide oxides: an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium. Marçalo J, Gibson JK. J Phys Chem A. 2009 Nov 12
  • Complexation of Curium(III) with DTPA at 10-70 °C: Comparison with Eu(III)-DTPA in Thermodynamics, Luminescence, and Coordination Modes. Tian G, Zhang Z, Martin LR, Rao L. Inorg Chem. 2015 Feb 16
  • Comparative biokinetics of trivalent radionuclides with similar ionic dimensions: promethium-147, curium-242 and americium-241. Priest ND. Radiat Res. 2007 Sep
  • Aqueous complexes for efficient size-based separation of americium from curium. Jensen MP, Chiarizia R, Shkrob IA, Ulicki JS, Spindler BD, Murphy DJ, Hossain M, Roca-Sabio A, Platas-Iglesias C, de Blas A, Rodríguez-Blas T. Inorg Chem. 2014 Jun 16
  • Curium analysis in plutonium uranium mixed oxide by x-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Degueldre C, Borca C, Cozzo C. Talanta. 2013 Oct 15
  • Impact of environmental curium on plutonium migration and isotopic signatures. Kurosaki H, Kaplan DI, Clark SB. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Dec 2
  • The biokinetics and radiotoxicology of curium: a comparison with americium. Ménétrier F, Taylor DM, Comte A. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008 May
  • Circularly polarized luminescence of curium: a new characterization of the 5f actinide complexes. Law GL, Andolina CM, Xu J, Luu V, Rutkowski PX, Muller G, Shuh DK, Gibson JK, Raymond KN. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Sep 19
  • Highly luminescent and stable hydroxypyridinonate complexes: a step towards new curium decontamination strategies. Sturzbecher-Hoehne M, Kullgren B, Jarvis EE, An DD, Abergel RJ. Chemistry. 2014 Aug 4
  • Chemical speciation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides in biological fluids: the dominant in vitro binding form of curium(III) and europium(III) in human urine. Heller A, Barkleit A, Bernhard G. Chem Res Toxicol. 2011 Feb 18
  • Separation of americium from curium by oxidation and ion exchange. Burns JD, Shehee TC, Clearfield A, Hobbs DT. Anal Chem. 2012 Aug 21
  • Curium(III) citrate speciation in biological systems: a europium(III) assisted spectroscopic and quantum chemical study. Heller A, Barkleit A, Foerstendorf H, Tsushima S, Heim K, Bernhard G. Dalton Trans. 2012 Dec 7
  • Curium(III) complexation with pyoverdins secreted by a groundwater strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Moll H, Johnsson A, Schäfer M, Pedersen K, Budzikiewicz H, Bernhard G. Biometals. 2008 Apr
  • Hydration shell structure and dynamics of curium(III) in aqueous solution: first principles and empirical studies. Atta-Fynn R, Bylaska EJ, Schenter GK, de Jong WA. J Phys Chem A. 2011 May 12
  • Sorption of curium by silica colloids: effect of humic acid. Kar AS, Kumar S, Tomar BS, Manchanda VK. J Hazard Mater. 2011 Feb 28
  • Curium(III) borate shows coordination environments of both plutonium(III) and americium(III) borates. Polinski MJ, Wang S, Alekseev EV, Depmeier W, Liu G, Haire RG, Albrecht-Schmitt TE. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2012 Feb 20
  • Spectroscopic properties and potential energy surfaces for curium hydrides: CmH(2), CmH(2)(+), CmH, and CmH(+). Balasubramanian K, Cao Z. J Phys Chem A. 2009 Nov 12
  • Emergence of strong exchange interaction in the actinide series: the driving force for magnetic stabilization of curium. Moore KT, van der Laan G, Haire RG, Wall MA, Schwartz AJ, Söderlind P. Phys Rev Lett. 2007 Jun 8