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About Lutetium

Lutetium Bohr

Lutetium oxide was described independently by several different chemists in 1907: Georges Urbain in France, Carl Auer von Welsbach in Austria, and Charles James in America. All were working with an impure sample of ytterbium oxide. Urbain’s name for the new element contained in the oxide was based on the Greek name for Paris, and was the name ultimately retained for the element.

Lutetium is extremely rare, but does have a few commercial uses. It is added as a dopant to garnets used in speciality lenses and magneto-optical memory storage devices. Cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) is one of the most effective materials for detectors in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Small quantities can also be used as catalysts in petroleum cracking and other industrial chemistry applications. Lutetium tantalate is the densest known stable white material that can be used as a host material for X-ray phosphors. Lutetium can also serve a dopant in a number of phosphors and scintillator crystals. Radioactive lutetium isotopes are used in radioactive dating and experimental cancer therapies.

Lutetium is a rare earth element and can theoretically be found in any rare earth containing mineral, but as a heavy rare earth element (HREE) it is more common in HREE-enriched minerals such as xenotime and euxenite. Additionally, lutetium is present in ion adsorption clays, which are a major source of HREEs due to their relative ease of processing, despite the low percentage quantities of rare earths they contain.

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Lutetium is the ideal host for x-ray phosphors because it produces the densest known white material, lutetium tantalate (LuTaO4). It is utilized as a dopant in matching lattice parameters of certain substrate garnet crystals, such as indium-gallium-garnet (IGG) crystals due its lack of a magnetic moment. Lutetium is High Purity (99.999%) Lutetium (Lu) Sputtering Target available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Lutetium Oxide (Lu2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Lutetium oxide is available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Lutetium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Lutetium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Lutetium Properties

Lutetium (Lu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolLutetium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Lutetium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Lutetium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 9, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f15 5d1 6s2. In its elemental form, CAS 7439-94-3, lutetium has a silvery-white appearance. The lutetium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is Lutetium is the last member of the rare earth series. Unlike most rare earths it lacks Elemental Lutetiuma magnetic moment. It has the smallest metallic radius of any rare earth and it is one of the least abundant of the naturally occurring lanthanides. The most common source of commercially produced Lutetium is the mineral monazite. Lutetium was first discovered by discovered independently by several different chemists, all in 1907. The name Lutetium originates from the Latin word Luteti, a historic name for Paris.

Symbol: Lu
Atomic Number: 71
Atomic Weight: 174.97
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery white
Other Names: Lutezio, Lutécio
Melting Point: 1663°C, 3025.47°F, 1936.15 K
Boiling Point: 3402°C, 6155.6°F, 3675.15 K 
Density: 9.840 g/cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 9.3 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 9.8 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 9841 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.037 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 19.2
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 428
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 427.37
Thermal Conductivity: 0.164 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: 79.0 µΩ-cm @ 25°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 26.86 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 68.6 GPa
Shear Modulus: 27.2 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 47.6 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.261
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: 1160 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 893 MPa
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.27
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.14
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.73
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 71
Protons: 71
Neutrons: 104
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f15 5d1 6s2
Atomic Radius: 174 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 187±8 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.74
Van der Waals Radius: 221 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (weakly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 32.793
1st Ionization Energy: 523.52 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1341.16 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2022.29 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7439-94-3
EC Number: 231-103-0
MDL Number: MFCD00011098
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Lu]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Lu
PubChem CID: 23929
ChemSpider ID: 22371
Earth - Total: 386 ppb
Mercury - Total: 297 ppb
Venus - Total: 405 ppb
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.00015
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.000005
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 560
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 70
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 1
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.01
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.008
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.00005
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 30
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 3
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 0.1
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.001
Discovered By: Georges Urbain and Carl Auer von Welsbach
Discovery Date: 1906
First Isolation: Carl Auer von Welsbach (1906)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Lutetium

Lutetium is not toxic in its elemental form, however, safety data for lutetium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Lutetium.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Lutetium Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Lutetium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. LU-M-02, LU-M-03, LU-M-04, LU-M-05

CAS #: 7439-94-3

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
The substance is not classified according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS).
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
GHS label elements
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 1
Physical Hazard = 1
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7439-94-3 Lutetium rod
Identification number(s):
EC number:


Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
No special measures required.
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Extinguishing powder. Do not use water.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
Fine powder: highly flammable
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from halogens.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
Not required.
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Not required.
Protection of hands:
Not required.
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1663 °C (3025 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 3402 °C (6156 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flash point: Not applicable
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Product is not flammable.
Powder: flammable
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 9.84 g/cm³ (82.115 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Not determined
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Powder: contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
No effects known.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
Eye irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
Lanthanons can cause delayed blood clotting leading to hemorrhages.
Exposure may also lead to sensitivity to heat, itching, increased awareness of odor and taste,
and liver damage.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
No effects known.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT):


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
GHS label elements
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Lutetium Isotopes

Naturally occurring lutetium (Lu) has 1 stable isotope, 175Lu.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
150Lu 149.97323(54)# 43(5) ms p to 149Yb; ß+ to 150Yb (2+) N/A 1160.09 -
151Lu 150.96758(43)# 80.6(19) ms ß+ to 151Yb (11/2-) N/A 1177.48 -
152Lu 151.96412(21)# 650(70) ms ß+ to 152Yb; ß+ + p to 151Tm (5-,6-) N/A 1185.56 -
153Lu 152.95877(22) 0.9(2) s ß+ to 153Yb; a to 149Tm 11/2- N/A 1202.96 -
154Lu 153.95752(22)# 1# s ß+ to 154Yb (2-) N/A 1211.04 -
155Lu 154.954316(22) 68.6(16) ms a to 151Tm; ß+ to 155Yb (11/2-) N/A 1219.11 -
156Lu 155.95303(8) 494(12) ms a to 152Tm; ß+ to 156Yb (2)- N/A 1227.19 -
157Lu 156.950098(20) 6.8(18) s ß+ to 157Yb; a to 153Tm (1/2+,3/2+) N/A 1235.27 -
158Lu 157.949313(16) 10.6(3) s ß+ to 158Yb; a to 154Tm 2- N/A 1252.67 -
159Lu 158.94663(4) 12.1(10) s ß+ to 159Yb; a to 155Tm 1/2+# N/A 1260.75 -
160Lu 159.94603(6) 36.1(3) s ß+ to 160Yb; a to 156Tm 2-# N/A 1268.82 -
161Lu 160.94357(3) 77(2) s ß+ to 161Yb 1/2+ N/A 1276.9 -
162Lu 161.94328(8) 1.37(2) min ß+ to 162Yb (1-) N/A 1284.98 -
163Lu 162.94118(3) 3.97(13) min ß+ to 163Yb 1/2(+) N/A 1293.06 -
164Lu 163.94134(3) 3.14(3) min ß+ to 164Yb 1(-) N/A 1301.14 -
165Lu 164.939407(28) 10.74(10) min ß+ to 165Yb 1/2+ N/A 1318.53 -
166Lu 165.93986(3) 2.65(10) min ß+ to 166Yb (6-) N/A 1326.61 -
167Lu 166.93827(3) 51.5(10) min ß+ to 167Yb 7/2+ N/A 1334.69 -
168Lu 167.93874(5) 5.5(1) min ß+ to 168Yb (6-) N/A 1342.77 -
169Lu 168.937651(6) 34.06(5) h EC to 169Yb 7/2+ N/A 1350.85 -
170Lu 169.938475(18) 2.012(20) d EC to 170Yb 0+ N/A 1358.93 -
171Lu 170.9379131(30) 8.24(3) d EC to 171Yb 7/2+ 2 1367.01 -
172Lu 171.939086(3) 6.70(3) d EC to 172Yb 4- 2.25 1375.09 -
173Lu 172.9389306(26) 1.37(1) y EC to 173Yb 7/2+ 2.3 1383.16 -
174Lu 173.9403375(26) 3.31(5) y EC to 174Yb (1)- 1.9 1381.93 -
175Lu 174.9407718(23) Observationally Stable - 7/2+ 2.2327 1390.01 97.41
176Lu 175.9426863(23) 38.5(7)E+9 y - 7- 3.19 1398.08 2.59
177Lu 176.9437581(23) 6.6475(20) d ß- to 177Hf 7/2+ 2.239 1406.16 -
178Lu 177.945955(3) 28.4(2) min ß- to 178Hf 1(+) N/A 1414.24 -
179Lu 178.947327(6) 4.59(6) h ß- to 179Hf 7/2(+) N/A 1422.32 -
180Lu 179.94988(8) 5.7(1) min ß- to 180Hf 5+ N/A 1430.4 -
181Lu 180.95197(32)# 3.5(3) min ß- to 181Hf (7/2+) N/A 1429.16 -
182Lu 181.95504(21)# 2.0(2) min ß- to 182Hf (0,1,2) N/A 1437.24 -
183Lu 182.95757(32)# 58(4) s ß- to 183Hf (7/2+) N/A 1445.32 -
184Lu 183.96091(43)# 20(3) s ß- to 184Hf (3+) N/A 1444.08 -