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About Krypton

Krypton Bohr

Krypton, atomic number 36, is one of the noble gases and is found in trace amounts (1 ppm) of the Earth’s atmosphere. The high cost of fractional distillation of liquefied air to isolate this element precludes widespread use in practical applications. When isolated, krypton is commercially used for high-speed photographic flash bulbs; and when mixed with other gases such as argon, is often present in fluorescent lamps. Krypton is mostly inert and few compounds containing krypton are known to exist. Krypton diflouride (KrF2) is one such compound – a volatile and colorless solid that can typically only be produced in amounts measured in grams.

When krypton is combined with fluorine, a host of industrial and scientific applications are made possible. Krypton fluoride lasers produce a deep-ultraviolet beam that is widely used in photolithography during the manufacturing process of semiconductor integrated circuits. Due to the short wavelength of its emitted light (λ = 248 nm), this type of laser is credited with significantly reducing piece-part spacing in microelectronic chips throughout the 1990s and 2000s. This increased the density of piece-parts on a microchip, transistors in a CPU for example, thereby increasing switching speed and lowering cost of manufacturing electronic devices. For these reasons, the krypton fluoride laser has been credited as one of the key contributors in maintaining Moore’s Law during this time frame.

Sir William Ramsay, chemist and recipient of the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his isolation of noble gases, along with Morris Travers, discovered krypton in 1898 by evaporating components of liquefied air. Six naturally occurring, stable isotopes of krypton have been discovered since. One such isotope, 81Kr, has been found useful in dating groundwater. 85Kr is a byproduct of uranium or plutonium fission and is itself radioactive with a half-life of 10.76 years. 86Kr, with the 605nm wavelength characteristic of its orange-red spectral line, was declared the official internationally-accepted definition of ‘meter’ as a unit of measure in 1960; replacing a metal bar, before being replaced itself in 1983 by the distance that light travels in a vacuum.

Krypton Properties

Krypton Bohr ModelKrypton is a Block P, Group 18, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Krypton's shells is 2, 8, 18, 8 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6. In its elemental form krypton's CAS number is 7439-90-9. The krypton atom has a covalent radius of 116± and it's Van der Waals radius is Krypton has a concentration about 1 ppm in the atmosphere and can be extracted from liquid air. Krypton was discovered and first isolated by Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898. The origin of the name Krypton comes from the Greek word kryptos meaning "hidden".

Krypton information, including technical data, properties, and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity, and thermal properties are included.

Symbol: Kr
Atomic Number: 36
Atomic Weight: 83.79
Element Category: noble gases
Group, Period, Block: 18, 4, p
Color: colorless
Other Names: Cripto
Melting Point: -157.36°C, -251.248°F, 115.79 K
Boiling Point: -153.415°C, -244.147°F, 119.735 K
Density: 3000 (85 K) kg·m3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.413 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 0.003708 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 2155 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: 115.775 K, 73.53 kPa
Critical Point: 209.48 K, 5.525 MPa
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 1.64
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 9.05
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 0
Thermal Conductivity: 9.43×10-3  W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: N/A
Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 5R/2 = 20.786 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: N/A
Shear Modulus: N/A
Bulk Modulus: N/A
Poisson Ratio: N/A
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: (gas, 23 °C) 220, (liquid) 1120 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 3
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.91
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 2.94
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: 3.00 (12.5% s orbital)
Allen Electronegativity: 2.966
Pauling Electropositivity: 1
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: 1.000427
Electrons: 36
Protons: 36
Neutrons: 48
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Atomic Radius: N/A
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 116±4 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.16
Van der Waals Radius: 202 pm
Oxidation States: 2, 1, 0
Phase: Gas
Crystal Structure: cubic face-centered
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Not stable
1st Ionization Energy: 1350.77 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 2350.39 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 3565.16 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7439-90-9
EC Number: N/A
MDL Number: MFCD00151310
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Kr]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Kr
PubChem CID: 5416
ChemSpider ID: 5223
Earth - Total: 0.0236E-8 cm^3/g
Mercury - Total: N/A
Venus - Total: 2.30E-8 cm^3/g
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.21
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.016
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 0.15
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 0.04
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: N/A
Stream, ppb by weight: N/A
Stream, ppb by atoms: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 40
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.06
Discovered By: William Ramsay and Morris Travers
Discovery Date: 1898
First Isolation: William Ramsay and Morris Travers (1898)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Krypton

Krypton is not toxic and is chemically inert, and thus poses minimal environmental or health threats. At room temperature, krypton is typically only harmful when its presence leads to displacement of oxygen in the air, creating potential for asphyxiation.

Safety Data
Material Safety Data Sheet MSDS
Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H280
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Gas Cylinder - Gases Under Pressure

Krypton Isotopes

Naturally occurring krypton has six stable isotopes: 78Kr, 80Kr, 82Kr, 83Kr, 84Kr, and 86Kr.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
69Kr 68.96518(43)# 32(10) ms β+ to 69Br 5/2-# N/A 549.64 -
70Kr 69.95526(41)# 52(17) ms β+ to 70Br 0+ N/A 567.04 -
71Kr 70.94963(70) 100(3) ms β+ to 71Br; β+ + p to 70Se (5/2)- N/A 580.71 -
72Kr 71.942092(9) 17.16(18) s β+ to 72Br 0+ N/A 595.31 -
73Kr 72.939289(7) 28.6(6) s β+ to 73Br; β+ + p to 72Se 3/2- N/A 606.18 -
74Kr 73.9330844(22) 11.5 min EC to 74Br 0+ N/A 619.85 -
75Kr 74.930946(9) 4.3 min EC to 75Br 5/2+ N/A 630.72 -
76Kr 75.925910(4) 14.8 h EC to 76Br 0+ N/A 643.46 -
77Kr 76.9246700(21) 1.24 h EC to 77Br 5/2+ N/A 652.47 -
78Kr 77.9203648(12) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 664.28 0.35
79Kr 78.920082(4) 1.455 d EC to 79Br 1/2- N/A 672.35 -
80Kr 79.9163790(16) Stable - 0+ N/A 684.16 2.28
81Kr 80.9165920(21) 210000 y EC to 81Br 7/2+ N/A 692.24 -
82Kr 81.9134836(19) Stable - 0+ N/A 703.11 11.58
83Kr 82.914136(3) Stable - 9/2+ -0.970669 710.26 11.49
84Kr 83.911507(3) Stable - 0+ N/A 721.13 57
85Kr 84.9125273(21) 10.73 y β- to 85Rb 9/2+ 1.005 728.28 -
86Kr 85.91061073(11) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 738.22 17.3
87Kr 86.91335486(29) 1.27 h β- to 87Rb 5/2+ -1.018 743.51 -
88Kr 87.914447(14) 2.84 h β- to 88Rb 0+ N/A 750.65 -
89Kr 88.91763(6) 3.15 min β- to 89Rb 3/2(+#) N/A 755.94 -
90Kr 89.919517(20) 32.32(9) s β- to 90Rb 0+ N/A 762.15 -
91Kr 90.92345(6) 8.57(4) s β- to 91Rb 5/2(+) N/A 766.5 -
92Kr 91.926156(13) 1.840(8) s β- to 92Rb; β- + n to 91Rb 0+ N/A 771.79 -
93Kr 92.93127(11) 1.286(10) s β- to 93Rb; β- + n to 92Rb 1/2+ N/A 775.21 -
94Kr 93.93436(32)# 210(4) ms β- to 94Rb; β- + n to 93Rb 0+ N/A 780.49 -
95Kr 94.93984(43)# 114(3) ms β- to 95Rb 1/2(+) N/A 783.91 -
96Kr 95.94307(54)# 80(7) ms β- to 96Rb 0+ N/A 788.26 -
97Kr 96.94856(54)# 63(4) ms β- to 97Rb; β- + n to 96Rb 3/2+# N/A 791.69 -
98Kr 97.95191(64)# 46(8) ms Unknown 0+ N/A 796.97 -
99Kr 98.95760(64)# 40(11) ms Unknown (3/2+)# N/A 799.46 -
100Kr 99.96114(54)# 10# ms [>300 ns] Unknown 0+ N/A 803.81 -
100Kr 100 >635 ns β- + 2n to 99Rb; β- + n to 100Rb; β- to 101Rb; N/A N/A N/A -
Krypton Elemental Symbol

Recent Research & Development for Krypton

  • The Nature and Role of the Gold-Krypton Interactions in Small Neutral Gold Clusters. Mancera LA, Benoit DM. J Phys Chem A. 2015 Mar 5.
  • Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Tsuge M, Tsuji K, Kawai A, Shibuya K. J Phys Chem A. 2013 Dec 12
  • Nanoporous metal formates for krypton/xenon separation. Lawler KV, Hulvey Z, Forster PM. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Dec 4
  • Krypton-81 in groundwater of the Culebra Dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico. Sturchio NC, Kuhlman KL, Yokochi R, Probst PC, Jiang W, Lu ZT, Mueller P, Yang GM. J Contam Hydrol. 2014 May
  • An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors. Aprile E, Yoon T, Loose A, Goetzke LW, Zelevinsky T. Rev Sci Instrum. 2013 Sep
  • Improved modeling of two-dimensional transitions in dense phases on crystalline surfaces. Krypton-graphite system. Ustinov EA. J Chem Phys. 2015 Feb 21
  • Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere. Bollhöfer A, Schlosser C, Ross JO, Sartorius H, Schmid S. J Environ Radioact. 2014 Jan
  • Communication: electron transfer mediated decay enabled by spin-orbit interaction in small krypton/xenon clusters. Zobel JP, Kryzhevoi NV, Pernpointner M. J Chem Phys. 2014 Apr 28
  • Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters. Shen L, Xu Q, Li P, Zhou G. Oncol Lett. 2013 Nov
  • Solvation of fluoroform and fluoroform-dimethylether dimer in liquid krypton: a theoretical cryospectroscopic study. Kohls E, Mishev A, Pejov L. J Chem Phys. 2013 Aug 7
  • Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients. Connan O, Solier L, Hébert D, Maro D, Lamotte M, Voiseux C, Laguionie P, Cazimajou O, Le Cavelier S, Godinot C, Morillon M, Thomas L, Percot S. J Environ Radioact. 2014 Nov
  • Krypton for Computed Tomography Lung Ventilation Imaging: Preliminary Animal Data. Mahnken AH, Jost G, Pietsch H. Invest Radiol. 2014 Dec 30.
  • Computation of thermodynamic and transport properties to predict thermophoretic effects in an argon-krypton mixture. Miller NA, Daivis PJ, Snook IK, Todd BD. J Chem Phys. 2013 Oct 14
  • Krypton-enhanced ventilation CT with dual energy technique: experimental study for optimal krypton concentration. Chung YE, Hong SR, Lee MJ, Lee M, Lee HJ. Exp Lung Res. 2014 Nov
  • Potential of metal-organic frameworks for separation of xenon and krypton. Banerjee D, Cairns AJ, Liu J, Motkuri RK, Nune SK, Fernandez CA, Krishna R, Strachan DM, Thallapally PK. Acc Chem Res. 2015 Feb 17
  • Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors. Wang Z, Bao L, Hao X, Ju Y. Rev Sci Instrum. 2014 Jan
  • An experimental study on choroidal neovascularization induced by Krypton laser in rat model. Cui J, Liu Y, Zhang J, Yan H. Photomed Laser Surg. 2014 Jan
  • AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer. Popov AM, Lebedeva IV, Knizhnik AA, Lozovik YE, Potapkin BV, Poklonski NA, Siahlo AI, Vyrko SA. J Chem Phys. 2013 Oct 21
  • Effective and accurate approach for modeling of commensurate-incommensurate transition in krypton monolayer on graphite. Ustinov EA. J Chem Phys. 2014 Oct 7
  • Analysis of krypton-85 and krypton-81 in a few liters of air. Tu LY, Yang GM, Cheng CF, Liu GL, Zhang XY, Hu SM. Anal Chem. 2014 Apr 15