Krypton Elemental Symbol
Krypton



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Krypton Krypton Cripto Krípton kriptón Krypton

Krypton Bohr ModelKrypton is a Block P, Group 18, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Krypton's shells is 2, 8, 18, 8 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6. In its elemental form krypton's CAS number is 7439-90-9. The krypton atom has a covalent radius of 116±4.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 202.pm. Krypton has a concentration about 1 ppm in the atmosphere and can be extracted from liquid air. Krypton was discovered and first isolated by Sir William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898. The origin of the name Krypton comes from the Greek word kryptos meaning "hidden".

Krypton is not toxic. Krypton information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Krypton Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Kr Melting Point: -157.36 oC, -251.248 oF, 115.79 K
Atomic Number: 36 Boiling Point: -153.415 oC, -244.147 oF, 119.735 K
Atomic Weight: 83.79 Density: 3000 (85 K) kg m-3
Element Category: noble gases Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.413 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 18, 4, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 9.05 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 1.64 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 36 Thermal Conductivity: 9.43×10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 36 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 48 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Ar]4s23d104p6 Electronegativity: 3.00 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 116±4 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 5R/2 = 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 202 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 2, 1, 0 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Gas Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: cubic face-centered Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 1350.77 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2350.39 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: 3565.16 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (gas, 23 °C) 220, (liquid) 1120 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7439-90-9 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 5223 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5416 Abundance in universe, by weight: 40 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00151310 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.06 ppb
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: William Ramsay and Morris Travers
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1898
SMILES Identifier: [Kr]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Kr Other Names: Cripto
InChI Key: DNNSSWSSYDEUBZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Krypton

  • Inhomogeneous high harmonic generation in krypton clusters. Ruf H, Handschin C, Cireasa R, Thiré N, Ferré A, Petit S, Descamps D, Mével E, Constant E, Blanchet V, Fabre B, Mairesse Y. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Feb 22;110(8):083902. Epub 2013 Feb 21.
  • It's not the Krypton Factor: it's the human factor. Coates T. J Perioper Pract. 2012 Dec;22(12):370. No abstract available.
  • Pathway to cryogen free production of hyperpolarized Krypton-83 and Xenon-129. Six JS, Hughes-Riley T, Stupic KF, Pavlovskaya GE, Meersmann T. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e49927. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049927. Epub 2012 Nov 27.
  • Update and improvement of the global krypton-85 emission inventory. Ahlswede J, Hebel S, Ross JO, Schoetter R, Kalinowski MB. J Environ Radioact. 2013 Jan;115:34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2012.07.006. Epub 2012 Aug 2.
  • Four-body interaction energy for compressed solid krypton from quantum theory. Tian C, Wu N, Liu F, Saxena SK, Zheng X. J Chem Phys. 2012 Jul 28;137(4):044108. doi: 10.1063/1.4737183.
  • Structures of small mixed krypton-xenon clusters. Nagasaka M, Kosugi N, Rühl E. J Chem Phys. 2012 Jun 21;136(23):234312. doi: 10.1063/1.4729534.
  • Study of krypton laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a Guinea pig model of high anisometropia. Wang JH, Jiang W, Kang ZF, Liang LN, Liu XM, Tian NN, Zhang Q. Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2012 Jun;27(2):76-81. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-4432.2012.02.005.
  • Electronic spectroscopy of I(2)-Xe complexes in solid Krypton. Hulkko E, Ahokas J, Lindgren J, Myllyperkiö P, Pettersson M. J Chem Phys. 2012 May 7;136(17):174501. doi: 10.1063/1.4706521.
  • Krypton separation from ambient air for application in collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy. Mohamed T, Strohaber J, Nava R, Kolomenskii A, Thonnard N, Schuessler HA. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2012 Jul;23(7):1260-5. doi: 10.1007/s13361-012-0383-1. Epub 2012 May 2.
  • Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite. Patrykiejew A, Sokolowski S. J Chem Phys. 2012 Apr 14;136(14):144702. doi: 10.1063/1.3699330.
  • Krypton red laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus. 1982. Yannuzzi LA, Shakin JL. Retina. 2012 Feb;32 Suppl 1:1-14.
  • Krypton ventilation imaging using dual-energy CT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: initial experience. Hachulla AL, Pontana F, Wemeau-Stervinou L, Khung S, Faivre JB, Wallaert B, Cazaubon JF, Duhamel A, Perez T, Devos P, Remy J, Remy-Jardin M. Radiology. 2012 Apr;263(1):253-9. doi: 10.1148/radiol.12111211. Epub 2012 Feb 13.
  • Simultaneous detection of surface coverage and structure of krypton films on gold by helium atom diffraction and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. Danisman MF, Özkan B. Rev Sci Instrum. 2011 Nov;82(11):115104. doi: 10.1063/1.3658819.
  • Rotational spectrum and internal dynamics of tetrahydrofuran-krypton. Gou Q, Feng G, Evangelisti L, Maris A, Marchini M, Velino B, Caminati W. Chemphyschem. 2012 Jan 16;13(1):221-5. doi: 10.1002/cphc.201100673. Epub 2011 Nov 23.
  • Magnetic circular dichroism and absorption spectra of methylidyne in a krypton matrix. Harrison JJ, Williamson BE. J Phys Chem A. 2011 Aug 11;115(31):8643-9. doi: 10.1021/jp2048986. Epub 2011 Jul 18.
  • Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation. Stupic KF, Elkins ND, Pavlovskaya GE, Repine JE, Meersmann T. Phys Med Biol. 2011 Jul 7;56(13):3731-48. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/56/13/001. Epub 2011 May 31.
  • Unintentional fatal intoxications with mitragynine and O-desmethyltramadol from the herbal blend Krypton. Kronstrand R, Roman M, Thelander G, Eriksson A. J Anal Toxicol. 2011 May;35(4):242-7.
  • Photoelectron angular distributions from autoionizing 4s¹4p66p¹ states in atomic krypton probed with femtosecond time resolution. Doughty B, Haber LH, Hackett C, Leone SR. J Chem Phys. 2011 Mar 7;134(9):094307. doi: 10.1063/1.3547459.
  • [Krypton--new, deadly Internet drug. Since October 2009 have nine young persons died in Sweden]. Bäckstrom BG, Classon G, Löwenhielm P, Thelander G. Lakartidningen. 2010 Dec 15-21;107(50):3196-7. Swedish. No abstract available.
  • An efficient magneto-optical trap of metastable krypton atoms. Cheng CF, Jiang W, Yang GM, Sun YR, Pan H, Gao Y, Liu AW, Hu SM. Rev Sci Instrum. 2010 Dec;81(12):123106. doi: 10.1063/1.3520133.

Krypton Isotopes


Naturally occurring krypton has six stable isotopes: 78Kr, 80Kr, 82Kr, 83Kr, 84Kr, and 86Kr.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
78Kr 77.9203648 Observationally Stable 0+
80Kr 79.9163790 Stable 0+
82Kr 81.9134836 Stable 0+
83Kr 82.914136 Stable 9/2+
84Kr 83.911507 Stable 0+
86Kr 85.91061073 Observationally Stable 0+