Rubidium Elemental Symbol (Rb)
Rubidium



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Rubidium Rubidium Rubidio Rubídio Rubidio Rubidium

Rubidium(Rb) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolRubidium is a Block S, Group 1, Period 5 element. Rubidium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Rubidium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 8, 1 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 5s1. The rubidium atom has a radius of 247.5.pm and a Van der Waals radius of 200.pm. Rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to other Group 1 elements, e.g., rapid oxidation in air. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-17-7, rubidium has a gray white appearance. Rubidium is found in the minerals lepidolite, leucite, pollucite, carnallite, and zinnwaldite as well as some potassium minerals. Rubidium was first discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in 1861. The name Rubidium, originates from the Latin word rubidus, which means dark or deepest red.

Rubidium has various applications in medicine and photo-electronics. High Purity (99.999%) Rubidium Oxide (Rb2O) Powder Since it is easily vaporized, rubidium's spectral absorption range is a good target for laser manipulation of atoms. Rubidium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Rubidium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Safety data for rubidium compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Rubidium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Rb Melting Point: 312.46 K, 39.31 °C, 102.76 °F
Atomic Number: 37 Boiling Point: 961 K, 688 °C, 1270 °F
Atomic Weight: 85.4678 Density: 1.532 g·cm−3
Element Category: alkali metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 1.46 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 1, 5, s Specific Heat: 0.363J/gK
    Heat of Vaporization 75.7 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 2.2 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 37 Thermal Conductivity: 58.2 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 37 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 48 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 128 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 5s1 2, 8, 18, 8, 1 Electronegativity: 0.82 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 248 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 220±9 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 31.060 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 303 pm Young's Modulus: 2.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 1 (strongly basic oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 2.5 GPa
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: 0.3
1st Ionization Energy: 403.03 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 2632.62 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 0.216 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 3859.44 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1300 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-17-7 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: 4600 ppb
ChemSpider ID: 4512975 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: 340 ppb
PubChem CID: 5357696 Abundance in universe, by weight: 10 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134055 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.1 ppb
EC Number: 231-126-6 Discovered By: Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1861
SMILES Identifier: [Rb]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Rb Other Names: Rubidij, Rubidio
InChI Key: IGLNJRXAVVLDKE-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Rubidium

  • Eun Hyun Cha, Taek Jeong, Heung-Ryoul Noh, Two-color polarization spectroscopy in V-type configuration in rubidium, Optics Communications, Volume 326, 1 September 2014
  • Radosław Chrapkiewicz, Wojciech Wasilewski, Czesław Radzewicz, How to measure diffusional decoherence in multimode rubidium vapor memories?, Optics Communications, Volume 317, 15 April 2014
  • Anqing Jiao, Hongping Wu, Shilie Pan, Hongwei Yu, Zhihua Yang, Chen Lei, Synthesis, structure, and characterization of a new rubidium cadmium borate: RbCdB3O6, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 588, 5 March 2014
  • R. Král, K. Nitsch, V. Babin, J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, Y. Yokota, A. Yoshikawa, M. Nikl, Growth and optical properties of RE-doped ternary rubidium lead chloride single crystals, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 2, December 2013
  • A.V. Anikeenko, N.N. Medvedev, N.F. Uvarov, Molecular dynamics study of ion migration mechanism in rubidium nitrate, Solid State Ionics, Volume 251, 15 November 2013
  • Pawel Krys, Flaviano Testa, Andrzej Trochimczuk, Christian Pin, Jean-Marie Taulemesse, Thierry Vincent, Eric Guibal, Encapsulation of ammonium molybdophosphate and zirconium phosphate in alginate matrix for the sorption of rubidium(I), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 409, 1 November 2013
  • Hichri Monia, Zamali Hmida, Khattech Ismail, Heat capacities and enthalpies of fusion of lithium and rubidium nitrates: Heat capacities, enthalpies of fusion and enthalpies of formation of the intermediate compounds Ag0.5Rb0.5NO3 and Li0.5Rb0.5NO3, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 568, 20 September 2013
  • Brian K. Nicholson, Christopher J. Clark, Geoffrey B. Jameson, Shane G. Telfer, Rubidium-templated bowl-shaped isopolyoxoantimonates [RbH11−x(RSb)14O34]x− derived from arylstibonic acids, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 406, 1 September 2013
  • Aiqin Mao, Hua Wang, Renming Pan, Corrigendum to “Coke deactivation of activated carbon-supported rubidium-potassium catalyst for C2F5I gas-phase synthesis” [J. Fluorine Chem. 150 (2013) 21–24], Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Volume 153, September 2013
  • Aiqin Mao, Hua Wang, Renming Pan, Coke deactivation of activated carbon-supported rubidium–potassium catalyst for C2F5I gas-phase synthesis, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Volume 150, June 2013

Rubidium Isotopes


Rubidium (Rb) has 32 isotopes, two of which are naturally occurring: 85Rb (72.2%) and the radioactive 87Rb (27.8%).

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
85Rb 84.911789738 Stable 5/2-
87Rb 86.909180527 4.923(22)×1010 a 3/2-