Scandium (Sc) Elemental Symbol
Scandium





French German Italian Portuguese Spanish Swedish
Scandium Scandium Scandio Escândio Escandio Skandium

Scandium(Sc) and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolScandium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Scandium's shells is 2, 8, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. Scandium Bohr Model The scandium atom has a radius of 160.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-20-2, scandium has a silvery-white appearance. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) MetalScandium is found in concentrated amounts in the minerals euxenite, gadolinite and thortveitite; however, due to the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, global trade of the pure metal is very limited. Scandium was first discovered by Lars Nilson in 1879. The origin of the name scandium comes from the Latin word 'scandia' meaning Scandinavia. Scandium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.


High Purity (99.999%) Scandium Oxide (Sc2O3)PowderScandium is a metal that has many of the characteristics of the rare earth elements, particularly yttrium. It is a light material with a higher melting point than aluminum, giving it uses in aerospace and other manufacturing, such as racing bicycles, baseball bats, and golf clubs. Doping zirconium oxide with scandium oxide produces a low temperature electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) Sputtering TargetScandium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Scandium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Scandium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Scandium is mildly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Scandium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Scandium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sc Melting Point: 1814 K, 1541 °C, 2806 °F
Atomic Number: 21 Boiling Point: 3109 K, 2836 °C, 5136 °F
Atomic Weight: 44.955912 Density: 2.985 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.80 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 3, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.556 @20°C J/g mol
    Heat of Vaporization 376.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 15.9 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 21 Thermal Conductivity: 15.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 21 Thermal Expansion: r.t.) (α, poly) 10.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 24 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t. (α, poly) calc. 562 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar 3d1 4s2 2, 8, 9, 2 Electronegativity: 1.36 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 162 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 170±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 74.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 29.1 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 56.6 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.279
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 633.09 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1234.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 750 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2388.67 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-20-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22392 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23952 Abundance in universe, by weight: 30 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00016323 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-129-2 Discovered By: Lars Fredrik Nilson
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Sc]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sc Other Names: Skandium, Skandij, Scandio
InChI Key: SIXSYDAISGFNSX-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Scandium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Recent Research & Development for Scandium

  • Structure and magnetism of the A site scandium perovskite (Sc0.94Mn0.06)Mn0.65Ni0.35O3 synthesized at high pressure. Thomas CI, Suchomel MR, Duong GV, Fogg AM, Claridge JB, Rosseinsky MJ. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2014.
  • Laser-induced damage in composites of scandium, hafnium, aluminum oxides with silicon oxide in the infrared. Fu X, Commandré M, Gallais L, Mende M, Ehlers H, Ristau D. Appl Opt. 2014 Feb.
  • Catalytic C6 Functionalization of 2,3-Disubstituted Indoles by Scandium Triflate. Liu H, Zheng C, You SL. J Org Chem. 2014 Jan.
  • The hcp to fcc transformation path of scandium trihydride under high pressure. Pakornchote T, Pinsook U, Bovornratanaraks T. J Phys Condens Matter. 2014 Jan.
  • Activation of carbon dioxide and carbon disulfide by a scandium N-heterocyclic carbene complex. Arnold PL, Marr IA, Zlatogorsky S, Bellabarba R, Tooze RP. Dalton Trans. 2013 Oct.
  • Scandium pentafluorobenzoate-catalyzed unexpected cascade reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with primary amines: a process for the preparation of ring-fused aminals. Mao D, Tang J, Wang W, Wu S, Liu X, Yu J, Wang L. J Org Chem. 2013 Dec.
  • An ion pair scandium hydride supported by a dianionic (NNNN)-type macrocycle ligand. Cui P, Spaniol TP, Maron L, Okuda J. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013 Dec.
  • Trivalent scandium, yttrium and lanthanide complexes with thia-oxa and selena-oxa macrocycles and crown ether coordination. Champion MJ, Farina P, Levason W, Reid G. Dalton Trans. 2013 Aug.
  • Scandium Pentafluorobenzoate Catalyzed Unexpected Cascade Reaction of 2-Aminobenzaldehydes with Primary Amines: A Process for the Preparation of Ring-fused Aminals. Mao D, Tang J, Wang W, Wu S, Liu X, Yu J, Wang L. J Org Chem. 2013 Dec.
  • A change in the oxidation state of iron: scandium is not innocent. Swart M. Chem Commun (Camb) 2013.
  • Scandium Triflate-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Additions to Indolylmethyl Meldrum's Acid Derivatives via a Gramine-Type Fragmentation: Synthesis of Substituted Indolemethanes. Armstrong EL, Grover HK, Kerr MA. J Org Chem. 2013 Oct.
  • Versatile Reactivity of a Four-Coordinate Scandium Phosphinidene Complex: Reduction, Addition, and CO Activation Reactions. Lv Y, Kefalidis CE, Zhou J, Maron L, Leng X, Chen Y. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Oct.
  • Copper scandium zirconium phosphate: occupancy of the M1 and M2 sites in the temperature range 100-300 K. Bond AD, Warner TE. Acta Crystallogr C. 2013
  • Copolymerization of Isoprene and Nonconjugated a,?-Dienes by Half-Sandwich Scandium Catalysts with and without a Coordinative Side Arm. Guo F, Nishiura M, Li Y, Hou Z. Chem Asian J. 2013 Oct.
  • Chiral Scandium(III)-Catalyzed Enantioselective a-Arylation of N-Unprotected 3-Substituted Oxindoles with Diaryliodonium Salts. Guo J, Dong S, Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Liu X, Lin L, Feng X. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013.
  • Octacoordinate metal carbonyls of scandium and yttrium: theoretical calculations and experimental observation. Xing X, Wang J, Xie H, Liu Z, Qin Z, Zhao L, Tang Z. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2013 Jun.
  • Chiral Scandium(III)-Catalyzed Enantioselective a-Arylation of N-Unprotected 3-Substituted Oxindoles with Diaryliodonium Salts. Guo J, Dong S, Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Liu X, Lin L, Feng X. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013.
  • Enhanced electron-transfer reactivity of nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complexes by binding scandium ions. Yoon H, Lee YM, Wu X, Cho KB, Sarangi R, Nam W, Fukuzumi S. J Am Chem Soc. 2013.
  • Versatile Reactivity of a Four-coordinated Scandium Phosphinidene Complex: Reduction, Addition and CO Activation Reactions. Lv Y, Kefalidis CE, Jiliang Z, Maron L, Leng X, Chen Y. J Am Chem Soc.
  • Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study. Park KY, Oh IY, Moon NJ, Seo SJ. J Cosmet Laser Ther.

Scandium Isotopes


Scandium has one stable isotope: 45Sc.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
45Sc 44.9559119 Stable 7/2-