Scandium (Sc) Elemental Symbol
Scandium





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Scandium Scandium Scandio Escândio Escandio Skandium

Scandium(Sc) and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolScandium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Scandium's shells is 2, 8, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. Scandium Bohr Model The scandium atom has a radius of 160.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-20-2, scandium has a silvery-white appearance. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) MetalScandium is found in concentrated amounts in the minerals euxenite, gadolinite and thortveitite; however, due to the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, global trade of the pure metal is very limited. Scandium was first discovered by Lars Nilson in 1879. The origin of the name scandium comes from the Latin word 'scandia' meaning Scandinavia. Scandium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.


High Purity (99.999%) Scandium Oxide (Sc2O3)PowderScandium is a metal that has many of the characteristics of the rare earth elements, particularly yttrium. It is a light material with a higher melting point than aluminum, giving it uses in aerospace and other manufacturing, such as racing bicycles, baseball bats, and golf clubs. Doping zirconium oxide with scandium oxide produces a low temperature electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) Sputtering TargetScandium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Scandium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Scandium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Scandium is mildly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Scandium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Scandium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sc Melting Point: 1814 K, 1541 °C, 2806 °F
Atomic Number: 21 Boiling Point: 3109 K, 2836 °C, 5136 °F
Atomic Weight: 44.955912 Density: 2.985 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.80 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 3, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.556 @20°C J/g mol
    Heat of Vaporization 376.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 15.9 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 21 Thermal Conductivity: 15.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 21 Thermal Expansion: r.t.) (α, poly) 10.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 24 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t. (α, poly) calc. 562 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar 3d1 4s2 2, 8, 9, 2 Electronegativity: 1.36 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 162 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 170±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 74.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 29.1 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 56.6 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.279
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 633.09 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1234.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 750 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2388.67 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-20-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22392 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23952 Abundance in universe, by weight: 30 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00016323 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-129-2 Discovered By: Lars Fredrik Nilson
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Sc]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sc Other Names: Skandium, Skandij, Scandio
InChI Key: SIXSYDAISGFNSX-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Scandium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Recent Research & Development for Scandium

  • Ussadawut Patakham, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr, Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 616, 15 December 2014
  • Reio Põder, Juhan Subbi, Helgi Kooskora, Ivo Heinmaa, Vacancy association energy in scandium doped ceria: 45Sc MAS NMR and 2D exchange spectroscopy study, Solid State Ionics, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Yinlin Lei, Qi Su, Jue Chen, Yunjie Luo, Synthesis, characterization of cationic half-sandwich scandium mono(silylamide) complexes and their unexpected reactivity toward C–Cl σ bond activation of chlorobenzene, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Volume 769, 15 October 2014
  • Kevin R.D. Johnson, Paul G. Hayes, Yttrium and scandium complexes of a bulky bis(phosphinimine)carbazole ligand, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 422, 1 October 2014
  • Bushra Fatima, Sunil Singh Chouhan, Nikita Acharya, Sankar P. Sanyal, Theoretical prediction of the electronic structure, bonding behavior and elastic moduli of scandium intermetallics, Intermetallics, Volume 53, October 2014
  • Jie Chen, Min Luo, Ning Ye, Syntheses, characterization and nonlinear optical properties of sodium–scandium carbonate Na5Sc(CO3)4·2H2O, Solid State Sciences, Volume 36, October 2014
  • Atsushi Suzuki, Takeo Oku, Role of scandium atom in ScxY3−xN@C80(CF3)n (n = 0, 2) on nuclear quadrupole interaction, electric field gradient and asymmetric parameters, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 126, 25 August 2014
  • A. Birsan, Electronic structure and magnetism of new scandium-based full Heusler compounds: Sc2CoZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn), Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 598, 15 June 2014
  • Rekha Mann, Kiranmala Laishram, Renu Gautam, Suman Shakya, Neelam Malhan, Scandium ion doped yttrium oxide transparent ceramic from nitrate alanine microwave combustion synthesized nanopowders, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 5, June 2014
  • N.Q. Tuan, A.M.P. Pinto, H. Puga, L.A. Rocha, J. Barbosa, Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and age-hardening behaviour of Al–Sc alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 601, 17 April 2014

Scandium Isotopes


Scandium has one stable isotope: 45Sc.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
45Sc 44.9559119 Stable 7/2-