Scandium (Sc) Elemental Symbol
Scandium





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Scandium Scandium Scandio Escândio Escandio Skandium

Scandium(Sc) and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolScandium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Scandium's shells is 2, 8, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. Scandium Bohr Model The scandium atom has a radius of 160.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 200.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-20-2, scandium has a silvery-white appearance. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) MetalScandium is found in concentrated amounts in the minerals euxenite, gadolinite and thortveitite; however, due to the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, global trade of the pure metal is very limited. Scandium was first discovered by Lars Nilson in 1879. The origin of the name scandium comes from the Latin word 'scandia' meaning Scandinavia. Scandium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.


High Purity (99.999%) Scandium Oxide (Sc2O3)PowderScandium is a metal that has many of the characteristics of the rare earth elements, particularly yttrium. It is a light material with a higher melting point than aluminum, giving it uses in aerospace and other manufacturing, such as racing bicycles, baseball bats, and golf clubs. Doping zirconium oxide with scandium oxide produces a low temperature electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) Sputtering TargetScandium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Scandium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Scandium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Scandium is mildly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Scandium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab below.


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Scandium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: Sc Melting Point: 1814 K, 1541 °C, 2806 °F
Atomic Number: 21 Boiling Point: 3109 K, 2836 °C, 5136 °F
Atomic Weight: 44.955912 Density: 2.985 g·cm−3
Element Category: transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.80 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 3, 4, d Specific Heat: 0.556 @20°C J/g mol
    Heat of Vaporization 376.1 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 15.9 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 21 Thermal Conductivity: 15.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 21 Thermal Expansion: r.t.) (α, poly) 10.2 µm/(m·K)
Neutrons: 24 Electrical Resistivity: (r.t. (α, poly) calc. 562 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Ar 3d1 4s2 2, 8, 9, 2 Electronegativity: 1.36 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 162 pm Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 170±7 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 211 pm Young's Modulus: 74.4 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: 29.1 GPa
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: 56.6 GPa
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed Poisson Ratio: 0.279
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 633.09 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: 1234.99 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 750 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2388.67 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-20-2 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 22392 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 23952 Abundance in universe, by weight: 30 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00016323 Abundance in universe, by atom: 1 ppb
EC Number: 231-129-2 Discovered By: Lars Fredrik Nilson
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1879
SMILES Identifier: [Sc]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sc Other Names: Skandium, Skandij, Scandio
InChI Key: SIXSYDAISGFNSX-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       

Scandium Products

Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials


Recent Research & Development for Scandium

  • Bushra Fatima, Sunil Singh Chouhan, Nikita Acharya, Sankar P. Sanyal, Theoretical prediction of the electronic structure, bonding behavior and elastic moduli of scandium intermetallics, Intermetallics, Volume 53, October 2014
  • Ussadawut Patakham, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr, Effects of Iron on Intermetallic Compound Formation in Scandium Modified Al-Si-Mg Alloys, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Available online 15 July 2014
  • Atsushi Suzuki, Takeo Oku, Role of scandium atom in ScxY3-xN@C80(CF3)n (n = 0, 2) on nuclear quadrupole interaction, electric field gradient and asymmetric parameters, Microelectronic Engineering, Available online 10 July 2014
  • A. Birsan, Electronic structure and magnetism of new scandium-based full Heusler compounds: Sc2CoZ (Z = Si, Ge, Sn), Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 598, 15 June 2014
  • Kevin R.D. Johnson, Paul G. Hayes, Yttrium and scandium complexes of a bulky bis(phosphinimine)carbazole ligand, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Available online 12 June 2014
  • Rekha Mann, Kiranmala Laishram, Renu Gautam, Suman Shakya, Neelam Malhan, Scandium ion doped yttrium oxide transparent ceramic from nitrate alanine microwave combustion synthesized nanopowders, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 5, June 2014
  • N.Q. Tuan, A.M.P. Pinto, H. Puga, L.A. Rocha, J. Barbosa, Effects of substituting ytterbium for scandium on the microstructure and age-hardening behaviour of Al–Sc alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 601, 17 April 2014
  • Ilya Taydakov, Andrey Vaschenko, Yuri Strelenko, Alexey Vitukhnovsky, An unexpected electro-luminescent properties of scandium(III) heteroaromatic 1,3-diketonate complex, Inorganica Chimica Acta, Volume 414, 1 April 2014
  • Yu-Chih Tzeng, Chih-Ting Wu, Hui-Yun Bor, Jain-Long Horng, Mu-Lin Tsai, Sheng-Long Lee, Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 593, 21 January 2014
  • Rafael González-Hernández, Gustavo Martínez, William López-Perez, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez, Structural stability of scandium on nonpolar GaN () and () surfaces: A first-principles study, Applied Surface Science, Volume 288, 1 January 2014
  • Fusheng Pan, Mingbo Yang, Liang Cheng, Retraction notice to “Effects of minor scandium on as-cast microstructure, mechanical properties and casting fluidity of ZA84 magnesium Alloy” [Mater. Sci. Eng. A 527 (2009) 1074–1081], Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 587, 10 December 2013
  • Li Tian, Shuxian Wang, Kui Wu, Baolin Wang, Haohai Yu, Huaijin Zhang, Huaqiang Cai, Hui Huang, Thermal, spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal produced by optical floating zone method, Optical Materials, Volume 36, Issue 2, December 2013
  • N. Arikan, A. Iyigör, A. Candan, S. Ugur, Z. Charifi, H. Baaziz, G. Ugur, Structural, elastic, electronic and phonon properties of scandium-based compounds ScX3 (X = Ir, Pd, Pt and Rh): An ab initio study, Computational Materials Science, Volume 79, November 2013
  • R. Awad, A. Al-Zein, M. Roumie, I.H. Ibrahim, Synthesis and Characterization of Tl-1223 Substituted by Scandium, Journal of Materials Science & Technology, Volume 29, Issue 11, November 2013
  • Ussadawut Patakham, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Chaowalit Limmaneevichitr, Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 575, 25 October 2013
  • Samuel Couillaud, Marina Kirikova, Warda Zaïdi, Jean-Pierre Bonnet, Samuel Marre, Cyril Aymonier, Junxian Zhang, Fermin Cuevas, Michel Latroche, Luc Aymard, Jean-Louis Bobet, Supercritical fluid chemical deposition of Pd nanoparticles on magnesium–scandium alloy for hydrogen storage, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 574, 15 October 2013
  • Xiangnan Li, Xuening Jiang, Hongxia Xu, Qiuli Xu, Lei Jiang, Yuchao Shi, Qingyu Zhang, Scandium-doped PrBaCo2-xScxO6-d oxides as cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 38, Issue 27, 10 September 2013
  • C. Saidi, N. Chaaben, A. Bchetnia, A. Fouzri, N. Sakly, B. El Jani, Growth of scandium doped GaN by MOVPE, Superlattices and Microstructures, Volume 60, August 2013
  • Juhan Subbi, Ivo Heinmaa, Reio Põder, Helgi Kooskora, Solid state NMR spin-lattice relaxation investigation of oxygen dynamics in scandium doped ceria from 60 to 1073 K, Solid State Ionics, Volume 239, 15 May 2013
  • Ziwei Tang, Feng Yuan, Qinfen Gu, Yingbin Tan, Xiaowei Chen, Craig M. Jensen, Xuebin Yu, Scandium and vanadium borohydride ammoniates: Enhanced dehydrogenation behavior upon coordinative expansion and establishment of Hd+?-dH interactions, Acta Materialia, Volume 61, Issue 8, May 2013

Scandium Isotopes


Scandium has one stable isotope: 45Sc.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
45Sc 44.9559119 Stable 7/2-