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About Scandium

Scandium Bohr

On Dmitri Mendeleev’s 1869 periodic table, element 21 appeared as “ekaboron”. No such element had yet been discovered, but Mendeleev’s predictions regarding its existence and properties were largely confirmed ten years later when Lars Fredrik Nilson detected it in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite, and named it scandium after his native Scandinavia. Nilson was able to prepare high purity scandium oxide, but pure scandium metal was not produced in significant quantities until 1960. The relatively short history of scandium production has limited its uses in industry, which in turn has kept production relatively low and prices relatively high. In absolute terms, however, scandium is not rare, and therefore increasing recognition of scandium’s benefits may eventually lead to expanded demand and production.

Scandium is often used in small quantities to stabilize or impart useful properties to a host material, a practice known as doping. Most commonly, it is found in scandium-aluminum alloys, which are prized for their combination of lightness and strength, but are used less frequently than comparable less-expensive titanium-aluminum alloys. These alloys are used for some aircraft components and in sports equipment such as baseball bats, bicycle frames, and lacrosse sticks. Garnets containing scandium are used as gain media in lasers, including those used in dental surgery, and scandium-stabilized zirconia has been recognized as a high-efficiency electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells. Finally, scandium oxide is used in metal-halide lamps that are used to produce high-intensity white light that resembles sunlight.

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High Purity (99.999%) Scandium Oxide (Sc2O3)Powder Scandium is a metal that has many of the characteristics of the rare earth elements, particularly yttrium. It is a light material with a higher melting point than aluminum, giving it uses in aerospace and other manufacturing, such as racing bicycles, baseball bats, and golf clubs. Doping zirconium oxide with scandium oxide produces a low temperature electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) Sputtering TargetScandium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Scandium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Scandium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Scandium Properties

Scandium(Sc) and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolScandium is a Block D, Group 3, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Scandium's shells is 2, 8, 9, 2 and its electronic configuration is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. Scandium Bohr Model The scandium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-20-2, scandium has a silvery-white appearance. Scandium is found in concentrated amounts in the minerals euxenite, gadolinite and thortveitite; however, due to the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, global trade of the pure metal is very limited. High Purity (99.999%) Scandium (Sc) MetalScandium was first discovered by Lars Nilson in 1879. The origin of the name scandium comes from the Latin word 'scandia' meaning Scandinavia. Scandium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

Symbol: Sc
Atomic Number: 21
Atomic Weight: 44.95591
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 3, 4, d
Color: silvery white
Other Names: Skandium, Skandij, Scandio
Melting Point: 1541 °C, 2806 °F, 1814 K
Boiling Point: 2836 °C, 5136 °F, 3109 K
Density: 2.985 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 2.80 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 3.0 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 2985 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.556 @20°C J/g mol
Superconductivity Temperature: 0.05 [or -273.1 °C (-459.6 °F)] (under pressure) K
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 15.9
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 376.1
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 376.02
Thermal Conductivity: 15.8 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: r.t.) (?, poly) 10.2 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: (r.t. (?, poly) calc. 562 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 25.52 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 74.4 GPa
Shear Modulus: 29.1 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 56.6 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.279
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: 750 MPa
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.36
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.02
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.2
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.64
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 21
Protons: 21
Neutrons: 24
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Atomic Radius: 162 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 170±7 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.59
Van der Waals Radius: 211 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 18.133
1st Ionization Energy: 633.09 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1234.99 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2388.67 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-20-2
EC Number: 231-129-2
MDL Number: MFCD00016323
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Sc]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Sc
PubChem CID: 23952
ChemSpider ID: 22392
Earth - Total: 2.62 ppm
Mercury - Total: 2.01 ppm
Venus - Total: 2.74 ppm 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.0015
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.00021
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 26000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 12000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 40
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 1
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.004
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.00009
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 6500
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 2900
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 30
Universe, ppb by atom: 1
Discovered By: Lars Fredrik Nilson
Discovery Date: 1879
First Isolation: Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Scandium

Scandium is mildly toxic in its elemental form. Safety data for Scandium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Scandium.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H228
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 11
Safety Precautions 16-43
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Scandium Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Scandium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. SC-M-02, SC-M-03, SC-M-04, SC-M-05

CAS #: 7440-20-2

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 2
Physical Hazard = 1
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-20-2 Scandium
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-129-2


Description of first aid measures
After inhalation
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After skin contact
Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
After swallowing
Seek medical treatment.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Handle under dry protective gas.
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No information known.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from halogens.
Store away from oxidizing agents.
Store away from air.
Store away from water/moisture.
Further information about storage conditions:
Store under dry inert gas.
This product is moisture sensitive.
This product is air sensitive.
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Protect from humidity and water.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
Not required.
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
Protection of hands:
Impervious gloves
Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality. Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1539 °C (2802 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 2730 °C (4946 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flash point: Not applicable
Flammability (solid, gaseous): Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion:
Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 3 g/cm³ (25.035 lbs/gal)
Relative density: Not determined.
Vapor density: Not applicable.
Evaporation rate: Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Not determined
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available
Other information
No further relevant information available


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity: No effects known.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
Powder: irritant effect
Eye irritation or corrosion:
Powder: irritant effect
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity: No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
Scandium has a low order of toxicity. As with calcium, the toxicity is generally a function of the anion.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
Carcinogenic categories
OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)
Substance is not listed.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not a hazardous material for transportation.
UN proper shipping name
Transport hazard class(es)
Packing group
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Not dangerous according to
the above specifications.
Marine Pollutant (DOT):


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Scandium Isotopes

Scandium has one stable isotope: 45Sc.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
36Sc 36.01492(54)# N/A p to 35Ca N/A N/A 254.23 -
37Sc 37.00305(32)# N/A p to 36Ca 7/2-# N/A 272.55 -
38Sc 37.99470(32)# <300 ns p to 37Ca (2-)# N/A 289.02 -
39Sc 38.984790(26) <300 ns p to 38Ca (7/2-)# N/A 306.41 -
40Sc 39.977967(3) 182.3(7) ms ß+ to 40Ca; ß+ + p to 39K; ß+ + a to 36Ar 4- N/A 321.01 -
41Sc 40.96925113(24) 596.3(17) ms ß+ to 41Ca 7/2- N/A 336.54 -
42Sc 41.96551643(29) 681.3(7) ms ß+ to 42Ca 0+ N/A 348.35 -
43Sc 42.9611507(20) 3.891(12) h EC to 43Ca 7/2- 4.62 360.15 -
44Sc 43.9594028(19) 3.97(4) h EC to 44Ca 2+ 2.56 370.1 -
45Sc 44.9559119(9) STABLE - 7/2- 4.756483 381.9 100
46Sc 45.9551719(9) 83.79(4) d ß- to 46Ti 4+ 3.03 389.98 -
47Sc 46.9524075(22) 3.3492(6) d ß- to 47Ti 7/2- 5.34 400.85 -
48Sc 47.952231(6) 43.67(9) h ß- to 48Ti 6+ N/A 408.93 -
49Sc 48.950024(4) 57.2(2) min ß- to 49Ti 7/2- N/A 418.87 -
50Sc 49.952188(17) 102.5(5) s ß- to 50Ti 5+ N/A 425.09 -
51Sc 50.953603(22) 12.4(1) s ß- to 51Ti (7/2)- N/A 432.24 -
52Sc 51.95668(21) 8.2(2) s ß- to 52Ti 3(+) N/A 437.52 -
53Sc 52.95961(32)# >3 s ß- to 53Ti; ß- to 52Ti (7/2-)# N/A 442.81 -
54Sc 53.96326(40) 260(30) ms ß- to 54Ti; ß- to 53Ti 3+# N/A 447.16 -
55Sc 54.96824(79) 0.115(15) s ß- to 55Ti; ß- to 54Ti 7/2-# N/A 450.58 -
56Sc 55.97287(75)# 35(5) ms ß- to 56Ti (1+) N/A 454.93 -
57Sc 56.97779(75)# 13(4) ms ß- to 57Ti 7/2-# N/A 458.35 -
58Sc 57.98371(86)# 12(5) ms ß- to 58Ti (3+)# N/A 460.84 -
59Sc 58.98922(97)# 10# ms ß- to 59Ti; ß- to 59Ti 7/2-# N/A 463.33 -
60Sc 59.99571(97)# 3# ms Unknown 3+# N/A 465.82 -