[Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho: YAG) laser lithotripsy in the treatment of broncholithiasis].

Title [Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho: YAG) laser lithotripsy in the treatment of broncholithiasis].
Authors Y. Cheng; W. Zhang; H. Zhang; Y. Liu; N. Li; J. Cao; G.F. Wang
Journal Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
DOI 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2017.01.007

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of Ho: YAG Laser in the treatment of broncholithiasis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 6 patients who underwent Ho: YAG Laser lithotripsy in Peking University First Hospital during May 2012 to October 2015. 4 females and 2 males, with a median age of 60 years, were enrolled. Among 6 patients, persistent cough(n=2), hemoptysis(n=2), recurrent pneumonia(n=2) were the main clinical symptoms. Broncholiths were found in the left side in 1 patient and right side in 5 patients. 2 broncholiths were located in main bronchus and 4 in segmental bronchus. There were 2 patients with intraluminal broncholiths and 4 with transbranchial broncholiths. All 6 patients received Ho: YAG Laser(0.8-1.2 J pulse energies, 5-10 Hz frequencies, 365 ?m laser fibers) under rigid bronchoscopy in general anesthesia and experienced relief of symptoms. Results: Complete removal of broncholith was accomplished in intraluminal broncholith group and 1 patient in transbracnhial broncholith group, the other 3 transbracnhial broncholiths were partly removed. Complications included perioperative massive hemolysis(n=1), bronchoesophageal fistula(n=1) and postoperative pneumonia (n=2), no long term complications were encounted. Conclusion: The Ho: YAG were associated with acute complications including fistula, perioperative massive hemolysis, infections and no long-term side effects. It represents a safe and effective therapy option for broncholithiasis.

Citation Y. Cheng; W. Zhang; H. Zhang; Y. Liu; N. Li; J. Cao; G.F. Wang.[Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho: YAG) laser lithotripsy in the treatment of broncholithiasis].. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2017;40(1):2933. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2017.01.007

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See more Aluminum products. Aluminum (or Aluminium) (atomic symbol: Al, atomic number: 13) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 3 element with an atomic weight of 26.9815386. It is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and the most abundant metallic element. Aluminum Bohr Model Aluminum's name is derived from alumina, the mineral from which Sir Humphrey Davy attempted to refine it from in 1812. Aluminum was first predicted by Antoine Lavoisier 1787 and first isolated by Hans Christian Øersted in 1825. Aluminum is a silvery gray metal that possesses many desirable characteristics. It is light, nonmagnetic and non-sparking. It stands second among metals in the scale of malleability, and sixth in ductility. It is extensively used in many industrial applications where a strong, light, easily constructed material is needed. Elemental AluminumAlthough it has only 60% of the electrical conductivity of copper, it is used in electrical transmission lines because of its light weight. Pure aluminum is soft and lacks strength, but alloyed with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, or other elements, it imparts a variety of useful properties.


See more Yttrium products. Yttrium (atomic symbol: Y, atomic number: 39) is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 88.90585. Yttrium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The yttrium atom has a radius of 180 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 219 pm. Yttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 and first isolated by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1840. In its elemental form, Yttrium has a silvery white metallic appearance. Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. Elemental YttriumYttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. The name yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where it was discovered.

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