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About Manganese

Manganese Bohr Model

Manganese is a hard and brittle paramagnetic metal that oxidizes easily, and is found most commonly as manganese dioxide, a black mineral that historically was known as magnes, magnesia, or magnesia negra, all names derived from the origin of the minerals in the Magnesia region of the area known in modern times as Greece.

The dark color of manganese dioxide lent it to use in pigments, an application with a history dating back to stone age cave paintings. Manganese compounds were also used by glassmakers in ancient Egypt and Rome to tint or decolorize glass, a practice that continued into modern times. Use in glassmaking made manganese dioxide easy to obtain for alchemists and early chemists who used it to produce chlorine-containing bleaching agents and other useful lab reagents. Some of these chemists recognized that the compound contained a new element, but the first to actually isolate manganese metal was Johan Gottlieb Gahn, who accomplished the task in 1774. Spartan steel weapons had an unusually high level of manganese, and though it is debated whether its introduction was purposeful or an accident of working with manganese-rich ores, it is known that this was responsible for the notable hardness of Spartan steel. In the early 19th century, this effect was rediscovered and manganese use in steelmaking became commonplace.

Manganese remains very important in the production of alloys. Manganese can be used in corrosion resistant formulations such as stainless steel, and is also added in order to improve workability and tensile strength. In aluminum alloys, manganese is added primarily to prevent corrosion. Manganese may also be used as a finishing coating on objects made of ferrous metals, deposited through a process called phosphating. Manganese salts are dissolved in a solution of phosphoric acid, and the object to be coated is submerged in the liquid. Magnesium is then deposited in a thin layer on the surface. The coating is useful for providing corrosion resistance, though in modern uses it usually does so in combination with further coating or painting of the surface.

After use in metalworking, the largest use of manganese is in batteries. Manganese dioxide was first used in the Leclanche cell battery design in 1866; versions of this battery powered early telegraphy and signaling devices. The same compound is still used in modern zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

Additional uses of manganese rely on some of its other notable properties. Due to the wide range of possible oxidation states for the element, manganese compounds exhibit a variety of colors. Many of these have historically found use as pigments. Additionally, any manganese compounds are strong oxidizing agents, and have historically been used in organic synthesis and industrial applications. Manganese oxide has been used in glassmaking to oxidize iron contaminants that otherwise lend a green tinge to the final product. Potassium permanganate is used similarly in water treatment to react with and remove iron and hydrogen sulfide contamination, and can also be used as an antiseptic. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl is an organometallic compound used to increase the octane rating of gasoline and reduce engine knocking.

Manganese is a key component of several materials with rare electromagnetic properties that are potentially useful for new technologies. Manganese-based perovskite oxides exhibit colossal magnetoresistance (CMR)--a change in electrical resistance of the material by orders of magnitude when the material is introduced into a magnetic field. Magnetoresistance is currently exploited in technology such as computer hard drives, but current materials show a much smaller change in resistance than is seen with CMR. Ongoing research into CMR hopes to eventually use it to improve upon current technologies. Manganese can also be a component of magnetic semiconducting materials such as gallium manganese arsenide, that have applications in fields such as spintronics.

Manganese is an essential trace nutrient for all known forms of life because it serves as a cofactor for many essential metabolic enzymes. However, an excess of manganese, particularly in certain forms such as inhaled dusts and fumes, can be toxic.

The primary ore of manganese is pyrolusite, the mineral name of manganese dioxide. This and other manganese ores are leached with sulfuric acid to extract manganese in solution, followed by use of an electrowinning process to produce pure manganese. Alternatively, manganese ores can be mixed with other ores and carbon in a blast furnace to produce ferromanganese or silicomanganese.


Sputtering Targets
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Manganese is a key metal alloy component, particularly in stainless steels. It is used to both colorize and decolorize glass. High Purity (99.999%) Manganese (Mn) Sputtering TargetPotassium permanganate is a powerful oxidizing High Purity (99.999%) Manganese Oxide (MnO) Powderagent that is used in medicine and manganese oxide is used in dry cell batteries. Manganese is also added as a nutritional supplement for both human and animal consumption. Manganese is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Manganese nanoparticles and nanopowders are also available. Manganese oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Manganese fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Manganese is also available in soluble forms including manganese chloride, manganese nitrate, and manganese acetate. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Manganese Properties

Manganese(Mn) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolManganese is a Block D, Group 7, Period 4 element. Manganese Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Manganese's shells is 2, 8, 13, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d5 4s2. The manganese atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7439-96-5, manganese has a silvery metallic appearance. Elemental ManganeseManganese is found as a free element in nature and also in the minerals pyrolusite MnO2, braunite (Mn2+Mn3+6)(SiO12), psilomelane (Ba,H2O)2Mn5O10 and rhodochrosite MnCO3. Manganese was first discovered by Torbern Olof Bergman in 1770 and first isolated by Johann Gottlieb Gahn in 1774. The name Manganese originates from the Latin word mangnes meaning magnet.

Symbol: Mn
Atomic Number: 25
Atomic Weight: 54.93805
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 7, 4, d
Color: silvery metallic
Other Names: Manganum, Manganesio, Manganês
Melting Point: 1246 °C, 2275 °F, 1519 K
Boiling Point: 2061 °C, 3742 °F, 2334 K
Density: 7.21 g/cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.95 g/cm3
Density @ 20°C: 7.43 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 7470kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.48 kJ/kg/K
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 14.4
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 220.5
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 279.37
Thermal Conductivity: 7.81 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 21.7 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20°C) 1.44 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 26.32 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 198 GPa
Shear Modulus: N/A
Bulk Modulus: 120 GPa
Poisson Ratio: N/A
Mohs Hardness: 6
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: 196 MPa
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 5150 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.55
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.2
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.6
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.45
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 25
Protons: 25
Neutrons: 30
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d5 4s2
Atomic Radius: 127 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 139±5 (low spin), 161±8 (high spin) pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.29
Van der Waals Radius: 200 pm
Oxidation States: 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Not stable
1st Ionization Energy: 717.28 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1509.04 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 3248.49 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7439-96-5
EC Number: 231-105-1
MDL Number: MFCD00011111
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Mn]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Mn
PubChem CID: 23930
ChemSpider ID: 22372
Earth - Total: 750 ppm 
Mercury - Total: 150 ppm
Venus - Total: 460 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 2
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.23
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1100000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 420000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 10000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 200
Stream, ppb by weight: 5
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.09
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 2800000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 920000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 200
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 23
Universe, ppb by weight: 8000
Universe, ppb by atom: 200
Discovered By: Torbern Olof Bergman
Discovery Date: 1770
First Isolation: Johann Gottlieb Gahn (1774)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Manganese

Manganese in excess is toxic, particularly the inhalation of manganese in powder or dust form. Safety data for Manganese and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Manganese.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H260
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 11-15
Safety Precautions 43
RTECS Number OO9275000
Transport Information UN 3208 4.3/PG 1
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Manganese Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Manganese Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. MN-M-02, MN-M-03, MN-M-04, MN-M-05

CAS #: 7439-96-5

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
The substance is not classified according to the Globally Harmonized System (GHS).
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment: Not applicable
Label elements
Labelling according to EU guidelines:
Observe the general safety regulations when handling chemicals
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 0
Flammability = 0
Reactivity = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7439-96-5 Manganese
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-105-1


Description of first aid measures
General information No special measures required.
After inhalation Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents Water
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
In case of fire, the following can be released:
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment: No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up: Pick up mechanically.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires: No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility: No information known.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.


Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
7439-96-5 Manganese (100.0%)
PEL () Short-term value: C 5* ** mg/m³
as Mn *and inorganic compounds **fume
REL () Short-term value: 3* ** mg/m³
Long-term value: 1* ** mg/m³
as Mn *and inorganic compounds **fume
TLV () (0.2) NIC-0.02* NIC-0.2* mg/m³
as Mn;+ inorg. comp.;*resp.,**inh. fraction:NIC-A4
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Breathing equipment: Not required.
Protection of hands: Not required.
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Grey
Odor: Not determined
Odour threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1246°C (2275 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 2095°C (3803 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous) Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure at 20°C (68 °F): 0 hPa
Density at 20°C (68 °F): 7.3 g/cm³ (60.919 lbs/gal)
Relative density Not determined.
Vapour density Not applicable.
Evaporation rate Not applicable.
Segregation coefficient (n-octonol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information No further relevant information available.


Chemical stability
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions No dangerous reactions known
Incompatible materials: No information known.
Hazardous decomposition products: Metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
Primary irritant effect:
on the skin: Powder: irritant effect
on the eye: Powder: irritant effect
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
EPA-D: Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity: inadequate human and animal evidence of carcinogenicity or no data are available.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute and/or other multiple dose toxicity data for components in this product.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains reproductive and/or mutation data for components in this product.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for components in this product.


Acquatic toxicity: No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability No further relevant information available.
Behavior in environmental systems:
Bioaccumulative potential No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities of it to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.
Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Recommendation Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
DOT, ADR, ADN, IMDG, IATA Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Class Not applicable
Packing group
DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Marine pollutant: No
Special precautions for user Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of
MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code Not applicable.


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or
Product related hazard informations:
Observe the general safety regulations when handling chemicals
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
This product is subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency
Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 and 40CFR372.
Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Manganese Isotopes

Naturally occurring Manganese has 1 stable isotope: 55Mn.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
44Mn 44.00687(54)# <105 ns p to 43Cr (2-)# N/A 321.82 -
45Mn 44.99451(32)# <70 ns p to 44Cr (7/2-)# N/A 341.08 -
46Mn 45.98672(12)# 37(3) ms ß+ to 46Cr; ß+ + p to 45V; ß+ + a to 42Ti; ß+ + 2p to 44Ti (4+) N/A 356.61 -
47Mn 46.97610(17)# 100(50) ms ß+ to 47Cr; ß+ + p to 46V 5/2-# N/A 374.01 -
48Mn 47.96852(12) 158.1(22) ms ß+ to 48Cr; ß+ + p to 47V; ß+ + a to 44Ti 4+ N/A 389.54 -
49Mn 48.959618(26) 382(7) ms p to 49Cr 5/2- N/A 406 -
50Mn 49.9542382(11) 283.29(8) ms p to 50Cr 0+ N/A 418.74 -
51Mn 50.9482108(11) 46.2(1) min EC to 51Cr 5/2- N/A 432.41 -
52Mn 51.9455655(21) 5.591(3) d EC to 52Cr 6+ 3.063 443.28 -
53Mn 52.9412901(9) 3.74(4)E+6 y EC to 53Cr 7/2- 5.024 455.09 -
54Mn 53.9403589(14) 312.03(3) d EC to 54Cr; ß- to 54Fe 3+ 3.282 464.1 -
55Mn 54.9380451(7) STABLE - 5/2- 3.4532 474.04 100
56Mn 55.9389049(7) 2.5789(1) h ß- to 56Fe 3+ 3.2266 482.12 -
57Mn 56.9382854(20) 85.4(18) s ß- to 57Fe 5/2- N/A 490.2 -
58Mn 57.93998(3) 3.0(1) s ß- to 58Fe 1+ N/A 497.34 -
59Mn 58.94044(3) 4.59(5) s ß- to 59Fe (5/2)- N/A 504.49 -
60Mn 59.94291(9) 51(6) s ß- to 60Fe 0+ N/A 510.71 -
61Mn 60.94465(24) 0.67(4) s ß- to 61Fe (5/2)- N/A 516.92 -
62Mn 61.94843(24) 671(5) ms ß- to 62Fe; ß- + n to 61Fe (3+) N/A 521.27 -
63Mn 62.95024(28) 275(4) ms ß- to 63Fe 5/2-# N/A 527.49 -
64Mn 63.95425(29) 88.8(25) ms ß- to 64Fe; ß- + n to 63Fe (1+) N/A 531.84 -
65Mn 64.95634(58) 92(1) ms ß- to 65Fe; ß- + n to 64Fe 5/2-# N/A 538.06 -
66Mn 65.96108(43)# 64.4(18) ms ß- to 66Fe; ß- + n to 65Fe N/A N/A 541.48 -
67Mn 66.96414(54)# 45(3) ms ß- to 67Fe 5/2-# N/A 546.76 -
68Mn 67.96930(64)# 28(4) ms Unknown N/A N/A 550.18 -
69Mn 68.97284(86)# 14(4) ms Unknown 5/2-# N/A 555.46 -