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About Neodymium

Neodymium Bohr

In 1841, Carl Gustav Mosander obtained a novel oxide from his experiments with rare-earth containing minerals. He believed this compound to be an oxide of a new rare earth element that he called didymium. This name was derived from the greek didymos, meaning twin, because Mosander felt it had very similar properties to the rare earth element he had previously discovered, lanthanum. Didymium was included as an element on an early version of Dmitri Mendeleev’s periodic table. Later experiments by Austrian chemist Carl Auer Welsbach in 1885 showed that Mosander’s oxide was actually a mixture of salts of two new elements, which were subsequently named praseodymium and neodymium. “Dymium” was retained from the original name, and “neo” simply means “new”.

Neodymium magnets, made from an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron, are the strongest known permanent magnets. They are essential for many modern electronics, including microphones, speakers, hard disks, and electric motors. The vast majority of neodymium's commercial use isin production of these high-strength magnets.

In most other applications of neodymium, it is added in small amounts to alter the properties of a host material. Neodymium oxide is used as a colorant to produce glass that varies in shade depending on what type of lighting it is viewed in, a property valued by collectors. The color change phenomenon results from the sharp absorption bands of light transmitted through neodymium glasses, a feature that makes the same glass useful for photography filters and in scientific settings. Additionally, neodymium is used in combination with praseodymium to produce glass for safety goggles that block the high intensity yellow light and ultraviolet and infrared light produced during welding or glass blowing. Neodymium is also an important component of a variety of gain media used in lasers operating at infrared wavelengths. Yttrium aluminum garnet, yttrium lithium fluoride, and yttrium orthovanadate crystals can all be neodymium doped for this purpose. Commercially available laser pointers generally use neodymium doped crystals to produce infrared light that is converted to green light. Additionally, neodymium glass can itself be a laser gain medium and is particularly useful in extremely high power lasers.

Neodymium is one of the light rare earths, and is typically sourced, along with other elements from that group, from the minerals monazite and bastnasite.

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Elemental Neodymium Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity, making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens and highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring. High Purity (99.999%) Neodymium Oxide (Nd2O3) PowderNeodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. Neodymium is available as metal and High Purity (99.999%) Neodymium (Nd) Sputtering Targetcompounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Neodymium oxide is available in powder and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Neodymium fluoride is another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Neodymium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Neodymium Properties

Neodymium (Nd) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolNeodymium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Neodymium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Neodymium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f4 6s2. The neodymium atom has a radius of 181.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 229.pm. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-00-8, neodymium has a silvery-white appearance. Neodymium is the most abundant of the rare earths after cerium and lanthanum. Neodymium is found in monazite and bastnäsite ores. Neodymium was first discovered by Carl Aer von Welsbach in 1885. The name originates from the Greek words ‘neos didymos’, meaning new twin.

Symbol: Nd
Atomic Number: 60
Atomic Weight: 144.2
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white/ silvery white, yellowish tinge
Other Names: Néodyme, Neodym, Neodimio
Melting Point: 1016°C,1860.8°F,1289.15 K
Boiling Point: 3074°C, 5565.2°F, 3347.15 K
Density: 7.01 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 6.89 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 7.0 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 6800 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.049 Cal/g/K @ 25°C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 7.113
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 328
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 328.57
Thermal Conductivity: 0.165 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: 6.89 g·cm3
Electrical Resistivity: 64.0 µΩ-cm @ 25°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 27.45 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: (form) 41.4 GPa
Shear Modulus: (form) 16.3 GPa
Bulk Modulus: ( form) 31.8 GPa
Poisson Ratio: ( form) 0.281
Mohs Hardness: N/AQ
Vickers Hardness: 343 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 265 MPa
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 2330 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.14
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.07
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.86
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 60
Protons: 60
Neutrons: 84
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f4 6s2
Atomic Radius: 181 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
2.39
Covalent Radius: 201±6 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.88
Van der Waals Radius: 229 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) Unknown
1st Ionization Energy: 533.09 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1035.30 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2132.34 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-00-8
EC Number: 231-109-3
MDL Number: MFCD00011130
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Nd]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Nd
InChI Key: QEFYFXOXNSNQGX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
PubChem CID: 23934
ChemSpider ID: 22376
Earth - Total: 690 ppb 
Mercury - Total: 530 ppb
Venus - Total: 723 ppb 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.0028
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.00012
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 33000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 4800
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 3
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.02
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.2
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.001
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 510
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 70
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 10
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.09
Discovered By: Carl Auer von Welsbach
Discovery Date: 1885
First Isolation: N/A

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Neodymium

Safety data for Neodymium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Neodymium.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H260-H315-H319-H335
Hazard Codes F,Xi
Risk Codes 11-14/15-36/37/3
Safety Precautions 16-26-33-36/37/39-43
RTECS Number QO8575000
Transport Information UN 3208 4.3/PG
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Flame-Flammables
Review and Print SDS for Neodymium Metal

SAFETY DATA SHEET

Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015

SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Neodymium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. ND-M-02, ND-M-03, ND-M-04, ND-M-05

CAS #: 7440-00-8

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
HEALTH
FIRE
REACTIVITY
1
1
1
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 1
Physical Hazard = 1
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.


SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-00-8 Neodymium
Identification number(s):
EC number:
231-109-3


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES

Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Extinguishing powder. Do not use water.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Handling
Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Storage
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from halogens.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
Not required.
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Not required.
Protection of hands:
Not required.
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Appearance:
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1024 °C (1875 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 3027 °C (5481 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flash point: Not applicable
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Product is not flammable.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 7 g/cm³ (58.415 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Not determined
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
Viscosity:
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Reactivity
No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Powder: contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Halogens
Air
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
No effects known.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
Eye irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
Sensitization:
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
Carcinogenicity:
No classification data on carcinogenic properti
es of this material is available fr
om the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
Lanthanons can cause delayed blood clotting leading to hemorrhages.
Exposure may also lead to sensitivity to heat, itching, increased awareness of odor and taste,
and liver damage.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
No effects known.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
Carcinogenic categories
OSHA-Ca (Occupational Safety & Health Administration)
Substance is not listed


SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity
Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste treatment methods
Recommendation
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Recommendation:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

Not a hazardous material for transportation.
UN-Number
DOT, IMDG, IATA
None
UN proper shipping name
DOT, IMDG, IATA
None
Transport hazard class(es)
DOT, ADR, IMDG, IATA
Class
None
Packing group
DOT, IMDG, IATA
None
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Not dangerous according to the above specifications.
DOT
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
No


SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


16. OTHER INFORMATION

Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Neodymium Isotopes

Neodymium has five stable isotopes: 142Nd, 143Nd, 145Nd, 146Nd and 148Nd.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
124Nd 123.95223(64)# 500# ms Unknown 0+ N/A 981.02 -
125Nd 124.94888(43)# 600(150) ms Unknown 5/2(+#) N/A 998.41 -
126Nd 125.94322(43)# 1# s [>200 ns] ß+ to 126Pr 0+ N/A 1006.49 -
127Nd 126.94050(43)# 1.8(4) s ß+ to 127Pr 5/2+# N/A 1014.57 -
128Nd 127.93539(21)# 5# s ß+ to 128Pr 0+ N/A 1031.97 -
129Nd 128.93319(22)# 4.9(2) s ß+ to 129Pr 5/2+# N/A 1040.04 -
130Nd 129.92851(3) 21(3) s ß+ to 130Pr 0+ N/A 1057.44 -
131Nd 130.92725(3) 33(3) s ß+ to 131Pr (5/2)(+#) N/A 1065.52 -
132Nd 131.923321(26) 1.56(10) min ß+ to 132Pr 0+ N/A 1073.6 -
133Nd 132.92235(5) 70(10) s ß+ to 133Pr (7/2+) N/A 1081.67 -
134Nd 133.918790(13) 8.5(15) min ß+ to 134Pr 0+ N/A 1099.07 -
135Nd 134.918181(21) 12.4(6) min ß+ to 135Pr 9/2(-) N/A 1107.15 -
136Nd 135.914976(13) 50.65(33) min ß+ to 136Pr 0+ N/A 1115.23 -
137Nd 136.914567(12) 38.5(15) min ß+ to 137Pr 1/2+ N/A 1123.31 -
138Nd 137.911950(13) 5.04(9) h EC to 138Pr 0+ N/A 1131.38 -
139Nd 138.911978(28) 29.7(5) min EC to 139Pr 3/2+ N/A 1139.46 -
140Nd 139.90955(3) 3.37(2) d EC to 140Pr 0+ N/A 1156.86 -
141Nd 140.909610(4) 2.49(3) h EC to 141Pr 3/2+ 1.01 1164.94 -
142Nd 141.9077233(25) STABLE - 0+ N/A 1173.02 27.2
143Nd 142.9098143(25) Observationally Stable - 7/2- -1.065 1181.09 12.2
144Nd 143.9100873(25) 2.29(16)E+15 y a to 140Ce 0+ N/A 1179.86 23.8
145Nd 144.9125736(25) Observationally Stable - 7/2- -0.656 1187.94 8.3
146Nd 145.9131169(25) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1196.01 17.2
147Nd 146.9161004(25) 10.98(1) d ß- to 147Pm 5/2- 0.58 1204.09 -
148Nd 147.916893(3) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1212.17 5.7
149Nd 148.920149(3) 1.728(1) h ß- to 149Pm 5/2- 0.35 1210.93 -
150Nd 149.920891(3) 6.7(7)E+18 y - to 150Sm 0+ N/A 1219.01 5.6
151Nd 150.923829(3) 12.44(7) min ß- to 151Pm 3/2+ N/A 1227.09 -
152Nd 151.924682(26) 11.4(2) min ß- to 152Pm 0+ N/A 1235.17 -
153Nd 152.927698(29) 31.6(10) s ß- to 153Pm (3/2)- N/A 1243.25 -
154Nd 153.92948(12) 25.9(2) s ß- to 154Pm 0+ N/A 1251.33 -
155Nd 154.93293(16)# 8.9(2) s ß- to 155Pm 3/2-# N/A 1250.09 -
156Nd 155.93502(22) 5.49(7) s ß- to 156Pm 0+ N/A 1258.17 -
157Nd 156.93903(21)# 2# s [>300 ns] ß- to 157Pm 5/2-# N/A 1266.25 -
158Nd 157.94160(43)# 700# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 158Pm 0+ N/A 1265.01 -
159Nd 158.94609(54)# 500# ms ß- to 159Pm 7/2+# N/A 1273.09 -
160Nd 159.94909(64)# 300# ms ß- to 160Pm 0+ N/A 1281.17 -
161Nd 160.95388(75)# 200# ms ß- to 161Pm 1/2-# N/A 1279.93 -