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About Foams

A metallic foam or ceramic foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal or ceramic material containing a large volume fraction of gas-filled pores. The pores can be sealed (closed-cell foam) or can form an interconnected network (open-cell foam). The defining characteristic of these foams is a very high porosity, with typically 75-95% of the volume consisting of void spaces. The strength of foamed material possesses a power law relationship to its density: for example, a 20% dense material is more than twice as strong as a 10% dense material. Metallic foams typically retain some physical properties of their base material. Foam made from non-flammable metal will remain non-flammable, and the foam is generally recyclable back to its base material. The coefficient of thermal expansion also typically remains similar, while thermal conductivity is likely to be reduced.

Foamed Materials

Metals and Alloys

Open-celled metal foams are usually replicas produced using open-celled polyurethane foams as a skeleton. These foams have found a wide variety of applications in heat exchangers, energy absorption, flow diffusion and lightweight optics. Extremely fine-scale open-cell foams are used as high-temperature filters in the chemical industry. Metallic foams used in compact heat exchangers increase the heat transfer at the cost of an additional pressure drop. However, their use permits the physical size of a heat exchanger to be reduced substantially, and therefore also the fabrication costs.

Ultra High Purity Metal Foams

Closed-cell metal foams have been developed since the 1950s, but although prototypes were available, commercial production was started only in the 1990s. Close-celled metal foams are commonly made by injecting a gas or mixing a foaming agent into molten metal. The material is then stabilized using a high temperature foaming agent (usually nano- or micrometer sized solid particles). The size of the pores, or cells, is usually 1 to 8 mm. Closed-cell metal foams are primarily used as an impact-absorbing material. Unlike many polymer foams, metal foams remain deformed after impact and can therefore only be used once.


Ceramic foams are usually manufactured by impregnating open-cell polymer foams internally with ceramic slurry and then firing in a kiln, leaving behind only ceramic material. Such foams are often used for thermal insulation, acoustic insulation, adsorption of environmental pollutants, filtration of molten metal alloys, and as substrate for catalysts requiring large internal surface area. Ceramic foams have also been used as stiff lightweight structural material, specifically for support of reflecting telescope mirrors.

Production Methods


molten metal

Melt-based methods

Gas Injection

A liquid metallic melt can be foamed by blowing gases (air, nitrogen, argon) using rotating impellers that are responsible for producing gas bubbles in the melt.

Gas-releasing foaming agents

Adding foaming agents to a liquid melt is another method of releasing gas bubbles into the melt. The process is now used in small scale batches.

Solid-gas eutectic solidification (Gasar)

Eutectic systems (or multi-phase systems) formed between liquid metals and hydrogen gas can be used to create a two phase system by reducing temperature and pressures. The process leads to gas entrapment within the solidifying metal.

Investment casting

An indirect method of producing metal foams involves using polymer foam as a starting material in order to form a porous structure by using a reticulation method or foaming method. The polymer foam is filled with a heat resistant material followed by drying and removal of the polymer matrix. Molten metal is then cast into voids to produce a replica of the original foam structure.

Powder-Based Methods

metal powder

The Fraunhofer-Institute process consists of mixing metal powders with a foaming agent, densely compacting the mixture, followed by sintering to obtain the final foam product.

Gas entrapment

Metal powders can also be foamed by compressing powders to a precursor material, then filling the metal compact with gas followed by heating the precursor material to expand the metal due to the entrapped gas. This process is commonly used to make porous titanium structures.

Electrodeposition of Ionized Foams

Ionized foams are made by galvanic electro-deposition. These foams have been tested for use as advanced battery electrode materials.


Chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

Applying ceramic foams as a surface coating uses the process of chemical vapor deposition. Protective or anti-corrosive coatings, for example, are produced using this method.

Foamed Slurry

Either a ceramic powder is mixed to form a slurry with water or organic monomers are mixed with an initiator catalyst to form a slurry. The slurry is then mixed with a foaming agent to create a foam, followed by polymerization, drying and sintering.

Gas-releasing foaming agents

Adding foaming agents to a ceramic slurry or melt is another method of releasing gas bubbles into the melt. The process is now used in small scale batches.

Applications of Foamed Materials

Light, strong structural materials

Aircraft and automobile manufacturers frequently use lightweight strong components consisting of metal or ceramic foam. Lightweight structural materials allow increased fuel efficiency while preserving or even increasing the safety standards of the vehicle.


Porous foam membranes are used in filtration of gases and liquids.

Water remediation and absorption of environmental pollutants

Graphene oxide foams are commonly used in water treatment. In addition, spray foams have been used for environmental remediation applications.


Biomedical devices such as implants and orthopedics incorporate foams to allow for the use of biocompatible, but inconveniently heavy materials. For example, titanium foams are currently used in numerous load bearing orthopedic applications.

Lightweight armor

Lightweight armor solutions for various environments such as land, sea, and air often utilizes ceramics, composite materials and metallic foams. Aluminum foam is commonly used for lightweight armor production.

Catalyst Supports

Catalyst supports use foamed ceramic structures to provide large surface areas for catalysis of chemical reactions.

Thermal management

Carbon-based graphite foams are commonly used in heat exchangers and heat sinks.

Vibrational dampening and noise reduction

The noise insulation properties of some foams are used to create sound barriers.

Energy storage - batteries and fuel cells

Recent research has found uses for copper-based foams in advanced energy storage devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Advanced optical components and mirrors

Lightweight mirrors and advanced optical components utilize foam components for consumer products, defense, and aerospace applications.

Fuel injection & jet engines

Fuel injectors and jet engines use ceramic and metallic foam material components that can withstand high temperatures and pressures while retaining strength.

Recent Research & Development for Metal and Ceramic Foams

  • P558. Twice-daily budesonide rectal foam induces complete mucosal healing in Japanese patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis: Results of multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [No authors listed] J Crohns Colitis. 2015 Feb
  • TLR4-mediated inflammation promotes foam cell formation of vascular smooth muscle cell by upregulating ACAT1 expression. Yin YW, Liao SQ, Zhang MJ, Liu Y, Li BH, Zhou Y, Chen L, Gao CY, Li JC, Zhang LL. Cell Death Dis. 2015 Feb 26
  • Off-loading total contact cast in combination with hydrogel and foam dressing for management of diabetic plantar ulcer of the foot. Vaseenon T, Thitiboonsuwan S, Cheewawattanachai C, Pimchoo P, Phanphaisarn A. J Med Assoc Thai. 2014 Dec
  • Diagnosis and deployment of a self-expanding foam for abdominal exsanguination: Translational questions for human use. Rago AP, Marini J, Duggan MJ, Beagle J, Runyan G, Sharma U, Peev M, King DR. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Mar
  • Assessing and monitoring the ecotoxicity of pulp and paper wastewater for irrigating reed fields using the polyurethane foam unit method based on monitoring protozoal communities. Ding C, Chen T, Li Z, Yan J. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Mar 15.
  • Clinical Relevance of Foam Rolling on Hip Extension Angle in a Functional Lunge Position. Bushell JE, Dawson SM, Webster MM. J Strength Cond Res. 2015 Feb 14.
  • A Single-Centre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Minoxidil Topical Foam in Frontotemporal and Vertex Androgenetic Alopecia in Men. Hillmann K, Garcia Bartels N, Kottner J, Stroux A, Canfield D, Blume-Peytavi U. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2015 Mar 3
  • Electrodeposition of palladium and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites on foam-nickel electrode for electrocatalytic hydrodechlorination of 4-chlorophenol. Liu Y, Liu L, Shan J, Zhang J. J Hazard Mater. 2015 Feb 19
  • Can a vascular smooth muscle-derived foam-cell really change its spots? Huff MW, Pickering JG. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015 Mar
  • Inflammation-induced foam cell formation in chronic inflammatory disease. Angelovich TA, Hearps AC, Jaworowski A. Immunol Cell Biol. 2015 Mar 10.
  • Conjugated linoleic acid induces an atheroprotective macrophage MΦ2 phenotype and limits foam cell formation. de Gaetano M, Alghamdi K, Marcone S, Belton O. J Inflamm (Lond). 2015 Feb 19
  • Hand-me-down hazard: flame retardants in discarded foam products. Betts KS. Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Mar 1
  • Efficacy of a prehospital self-expanding polyurethane foam for noncompressible hemorrhage under extreme operational conditions. Rago AP, Larentzakis A, Marini J, Picard A, Duggan MJ, Busold R, Helmick M, Zugates G, Beagle J, Sharma U, King DR. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Feb
  • Separation and concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides in milk by ionic-liquid-based foam flotation solid-phase extraction. Zhang L, Cao B, Yao D, Yu R, Yu C, Zhang H, Yu A. J Sep Sci. 2015 Feb 27.
  • Direct solvothermal phosphorization of nickel foam to fabricate integrated Ni2P-nanorods/Ni electrodes for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Wang X, Kolen'ko YV, Liu L. Chem Commun (Camb). 2015 Mar 9.
  • Clinical audit of a lymphoedema bandaging system: a foam roll and cohesive short stretch bandages. Whitaker J, Williams A, Pope D, Elwell R, Thomas M, Charles H, Muldoon J. J Wound Care. 2015 Mar 2
  • Foam cell-derived 4-hydroxynonenal induces endothelial cell senescence in a TXNIP-dependent manner. Riahi Y, Kaiser N, Cohen G, Abd-Elrahman I, Blum G, Shapira OM, Koler T, Simonescu M, Sima AV, Zarkovic N, Zarkovic K, Orioli M, Aldini G, Cerasi E, Leibowitz G, Sasson S. J Cell Mol Med. 2015 Mar 5.
  • The effect of plastic rearrangements on the flow of two-dimensional wet foam. Jing Z, Wang S, Lv M, Wang Z, Luo X. Soft Matter. 2015 Mar 2.
  • Efficacy of an Innovative Aerosol Foam Formulation of Fixed Combination Calcipotriol plus Betamethasone Dipropionate in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris. Queille-Roussel C, Olesen M, Villumsen J, Lacour JP. Clin Drug Investig. 2015 Feb 24.
  • Improved functionality of graphene and carbon nanotube hybrid foam architecture by UV-ozone treatment. Wang W, Ruiz I, Lee I, Zaera F, Ozkan M, Ozkan CS. Nanoscale. 2015 Feb 19.