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About Europium

Europium Bohr

In 1901, Eugène-Anatole Demarçay finally confirmed his suspicion that that the samples of samarium and gadolinium he had acquired five years earlier contained impurities of a previously undiscovered element. In a departure from the nationalistic trend of naming newly discovered elements for countries--gallium, germanium, and polonium had each been discovered and named in the previous quarter-century--Demarçay named his discovery after the entire continent of Europe. Nearly a century later, when the Euro was established, phosphorescent europium compounds were fittingly chosen for use in anti-counterfeiting measures embedded in the notes of the new currency.

The main uses of europium are in light emitting compounds called phosphors, though they are found in many places in addition to Euro notes. The discovery of a europium-containing red phosphor revolutionized color television technology in the 1960's. Prior to the introduction of europium phosphors, the phosphors used to provide the color red in color televisions were very weak, and to maintain color balance all the other colors had to be muted. The availability of brighter red phosphors meant brighter color televisions were suddenly possible.

Today, two different classes of europium oxide phosphors provide red and blue light, which can be used individually or in combination with a yellow-green phosphor to provide white light. Europium phosphors are used in televisions, fluorescent lighting, and some LEDs. Additionally, europium is used as a dopant in glasses used for lasers and other optoelectronic applications, and has some specialized research applications.

Europium is a rare earth element that can be found in varying quantities in most rare-earth containing minerals. It is most commonly extracted from monazite and bastnasite.


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High Purity (99.999%) Europium Oxide (Eu2O3) Powder Europium is utilized primarily for its unique luminescent behavior. Excitation of the europium atom by absorption of ultra violet radiation can result in specific energy level transitions within the atom creating an emission of visible radiation. In energy efficient fluorescent lighting, europium provides not only the necessary red, but also the blue. Several commercial blue phosphors are based on europium. Its luminesence is also High Purity (99.999%) Europium (Eu) Sputtering Target valuable in medical, surgical and biochemical applications. Europium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Europium oxide is available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Europium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Europium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Europium Properties

Europium (Eu) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolEuropium is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element. Europium Bohr Model7440-53-1, europium has a silvery-white appearance but it is rarely found without oxide discoloration. Europium is found in many minerals including bastnasite, monazite, xenotime and loparite. It is not found in nature as a free element. Europium was discovered by Eugène-Anatole Demarçay in 1896, however, he did not isolate it until 1901. Europium was named after the continent of Europe.

Symbol: Eu
Atomic Number: 63
Atomic Weight: 151.97
Element Category: Lanthanide
Group, Period, Block: n/a, 6, f
Color: silvery-white
Other Names: Europio
Melting Point: 822 °C, 1511.6 °F, 1095.15 K
Boiling Point: 1529 °C, 2784.2 °F, 1802.15 K
Density: 5.244 kg·m3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.13 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 5.248 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 5244 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.0421 Cal/g/K @ 25 ºC
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 10.5
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 176
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 177.11
Thermal Conductivity: 0.139 W/cm/K @ 298.2 K
Thermal Expansion: (r.t.) (poly) 35.0 µm/(m·K)
Electrical Resistivity: 90.0 µΩ-cm @ 25ºC
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 27.66 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 18.2 GPa
Shear Modulus: 7.9 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 8.3 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.152
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: 167 MPa
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: N/A
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.01
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: N/A
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: N/A
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 63
Protons: 63
Neutrons: 89
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f76s2
Atomic Radius: 180 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 198±6 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.83
Van der Waals Radius: 233 pm
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 83.334
1st Ionization Energy: 546.7 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1085 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2405 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-53-1
EC Number: 231-161-7
MDL Number: MFCD00010992
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Eu]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Eu
PubChem CID: 23981
ChemSpider ID: 22417
Earth - Total: 79 ppb
Mercury - Total: 61 ppb 
Venus - Total: 83 ppb 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 0.00013
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.000005
Earth - Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 1800
Earth - Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 240
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 0.5
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.004
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.007
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.00005
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 60
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 8
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 0.5
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.004
Discovered By: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay
Discovery Date: 1896
First Isolation: Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1901)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Europium

Europium is moderately toxic. Safety data for Europium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Europium.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H250
Hazard Codes F
Risk Codes 14/15-17
Safety Precautions 43-7/8
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information UN 2813 4.3/PG 1
WGK Germany 3
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Europium Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Europium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. EU-M-02, EU-M-03, EU-M-04, EU-M-05

CAS #: 7440-53-1

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
GHS02 Flame
Pyr. Sol. 1 H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.
Water-react. 2 H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
GHS label elements
The product is classified and labeled in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Hazard pictograms

Flame - GHS02

Signal word
Hazard statements
H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas.
Precautionary statements
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. No smoking.
P222 Do not allow contact with air.
P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use for extinction: Special powder for metal fires.
P422 Store contents under inert gas.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/
national/international regulations.
WHMIS classification
B6 - Reactive flammable material
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 3
Physical Hazard = 2
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-53-1 Europium
Identification number(s):
EC number:


Description of first aid measures
After inhalation
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After skin contact
Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
After swallowing
Seek medical treatment.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
In case of fire, use sand, carbon dioxide or powdered extinguishing agent. Never use water.
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
Reacts violently with water
Spontaneously flammable in air.
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Europium oxide
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Keep away from ignition sources
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Ensure adequate ventilation.
Do not flush with water or aqueous cleansing agents
Prevention of secondary hazards:
Keep away from ignition sources.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Handle under dry protective gas.
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
Protect against electrostatic charges.
Substance/product is self ignitable.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from air.
Store away from water/moisture.
Do not store together with acids.
Store away from oxidizing agents.
Store away from halogens.
Store away from acid chlorides.
Further information about storage conditions:
Store under dry inert gas.
This product is moisture sensitive.
This product is air sensitive.
Protect from humidity and water.
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored at the workplace.
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
Recommended filter device for short term use:
Use a respirator with type P100 (USA) or P3 (EN 143) cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. Risk assessment should be performed to determine if air-purifying respirators are appropriate. Only use equipment tested and approved under appropriate government standards.
Protection of hands:
Impervious gloves
Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality. Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Full face protection
Body protection:
Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid
Color: Grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 822 °C (1512 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 1596 °C (2905 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Spontaneously flammable in air.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 5.244 g/cm³ (43.761 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Reacts violently
Contact with water releases flammable gases
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


Reacts violently with water.
In contact with water releases flammable gases which may ignite spontaneously.
Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Reacts with strong oxidizing agents
Spontaneously flammable in air.
Contact with water releases flammable gases
Reacts violently with water
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Acid chlorides
Hazardous decomposition products:
Europium oxide


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
No effects known.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
May cause irritation
Eye irritation or corrosion:
May cause irritation
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
No effects known.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


UN proper shipping name
Metallic substance, water-reactive, n.o.s. (Europium)
Transport hazard class(es)
4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
4.3 (W2) Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
4.3 Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Packing group
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Warning: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
EMS Number: F-G,S-N
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
UN "Model Regulation":
UN3208, Metallic substance, water-reactive, n.o.s. (Europium), 4.3, Il


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
GHS label elements
The product is classified and labeled in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Hazard pictograms
Signal word
Hazard statements
H250 Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.
H261 In contact with water releases flammable gas.
Precautionary statements
P210 Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. No smoking.
P222 Do not allow contact with air.
P231+P232 Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.
P370+P378 In case of fire: Use for extinction: Special powder for metal fires.
P422 Store contents under inert gas.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/
national/international regulations.
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Non-Domestic Substances List (NDSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manuf acturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Europium Isotopes

Naturally occurring Europium has one stable isotope (153Eu) and one (151Eu) recently discovered to be unstable.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
130Eu 129.96357(54)# 1.1(5) ms [0.9(+5-3) ms] Unknown 2+# N/A 1016.81 -
131Eu 130.95775(43)# 17.8(19) ms Unknown 3/2+ N/A 1034.2 -
132Eu 131.95437(43)# 100# ms ß+ to 132Sm; p to 132Sm N/A N/A 1042.28 -
133Eu 132.94924(32)# 200# ms ß+ to 133Sm 11/2-# N/A 1059.68 -
134Eu 133.94651(21)# 0.5(2) s ß+ to 134Sm N/A N/A 1067.75 -
135Eu 134.94182(32)# 1.5(2) s ß+ to 135Sm; ß+ + p to 134Sm 11/2-# N/A 1075.83 -
136Eu 135.93960(21)# 3.3(3) s ß+ to 136Sm; ß+ + p to 135Sm (7+) N/A 1093.23 -
137Eu 136.93557(21)# 8.4(5) s ß+ to 137Sm 11/2-# N/A 1101.31 -
138Eu 137.93371(3) 12.1(6) s ß+ to 138Sm (6-) N/A 1109.39 -
139Eu 138.929792(14) 17.9(6) s ß+ to 139Sm (11/2)- N/A 1126.78 -
140Eu 139.92809(6) 1.51(2) s ß+ to 140Sm 1+ N/A 1134.86 -
141Eu 140.924931(14) 40.7(7) s ß+ to 141Sm 5/2+ N/A 1142.94 -
142Eu 141.92343(3) 2.36(10) s ß+ to 142Sm 1+ N/A 1151.02 -
143Eu 142.920298(12) 2.59(2) min ß+ to 143Sm 5/2+ N/A 1159.1 -
144Eu 143.918817(12) 10.2(1) s ß+ to 144Sm 1+ N/A 1176.49 -
145Eu 144.916265(4) 5.93(4) d EC to 145Sm 5/2+ 3.99 1184.57 -
146Eu 145.917206(7) 4.61(3) d EC to 146Sm 4- 1.43 1192.65 -
147Eu 146.916746(3) 24.1(6) d EC to 147Sm; a to 143Pm 5/2+ 3.72 1200.73 -
148Eu 147.918086(11) 54.5(5) d EC to 148Sm; a to 143Pm 5- 2.34 1208.81 -
149Eu 148.917931(5) 93.1(4) d EC to 149Sm 5/2+ 3.57 1216.88 -
150Eu 149.919702(7) 36.9(9) y EC to 150Sm 5(-) 2.71 1224.96 -
151Eu 150.9198502(26) 5x1018 y a to 147Pm 5/2+ 3.4718 1233.04 47.81
152Eu 151.9217445(26) 13.537(6) y EC to 152Sm; ß- to 152Gd 3- -1.91 1231.8 -
153Eu 152.9212303(26) STABLE - 5/2+ 1.5331 1239.88 52.19
154Eu 153.9229792(26) 8.593(4) y EC to 154Sm; ß- to 154Gd 3- 2 1247.96 -
155Eu 154.9228933(27) 4.7611(13) y ß- to 155Gd 5/2+ 1.6 1256.04 -
156Eu 155.924752(6) 15.19(8) d ß- to 156Gd 0+ -2.01 1264.12 -
157Eu 156.925424(6) 15.18(3) h ß- to 157Gd 5/2+ N/A 1272.2 -
158Eu 157.92785(8) 45.9(2) min ß- to 158Gd (1-) N/A 1280.28 -
159Eu 158.929089(8) 18.1(1) min ß- to 159Gd 5/2+ N/A 1288.35 -
160Eu 159.93197(22)# 38(4) s ß- to 160Gd 1(-) N/A 1287.12 -
161Eu 160.93368(32)# 26(3) s ß- to 161Gd 5/2+# N/A 1295.2 -
162Eu 161.93704(32)# 10.6(10) s ß- to 162Gd N/A N/A 1303.27 -
163Eu 162.93921(54)# 6# s ß- to 163Gd 5/2+# N/A 1311.35 -
164Eu 163.94299(64)# 2# s ß- to 164Gd N/A N/A 1310.12 -
165Eu 164.94572(75)# 1# s ß- to 165Gd 5/2+# N/A 1318.19 -
166Eu 165.94997(86)# 400# ms ß- to 166Gd N/A N/A 1326.27 -
167Eu 166.95321(86)# 200# ms ß- to 167Gd 5/2+# N/A 1325.04 -