Dynamic X-ray diffraction imaging of the ferroelectric response in bismuth ferrite.

Title Dynamic X-ray diffraction imaging of the ferroelectric response in bismuth ferrite.
Authors N. Laanait; W. Saenrang; H. Zhou; C.B. Eom; Z. Zhang
Journal Adv Struct Chem Imaging
DOI 10.1186/s40679-017-0044-3

X-ray diffraction imaging is rapidly emerging as a powerful technique by which one can capture the local structure of crystalline materials at the nano- and meso-scale. Here, we present investigations of the dynamic structure of epitaxial monodomain BiFeO3 thin-films using a novel full-field Bragg diffraction imaging modality. By taking advantage of the depth penetration of hard X-rays and their exquisite sensitivity to the atomic structure, we imaged in situ and in operando, the electric field-driven structural responses of buried BiFeO3 epitaxial thin-films in micro-capacitor devices, with sub-100 nm lateral resolution. These imaging investigations were carried out at acquisition frame rates that reached up to 20 Hz and data transfer rates of 40 MB/s, while accessing diffraction contrast that is sensitive to the entire three-dimensional unit cell configuration. We mined these large datasets for material responses by employing matrix decomposition techniques, such as independent component analysis. We found that this statistical approach allows the extraction of the salient physical properties of the ferroelectric response of the material, such as coercive fields and transient spatiotemporal modulations in their piezoelectric response, and also facilitates their decoupling from extrinsic sources that are instrument specific.

Citation N. Laanait; W. Saenrang; H. Zhou; C.B. Eom; Z. Zhang.Dynamic X-ray diffraction imaging of the ferroelectric response in bismuth ferrite.. Adv Struct Chem Imaging. 2017;3(1):11. doi:10.1186/s40679-017-0044-3

Related Elements


See more Iron products. Iron (atomic symbol: Fe, atomic number: 26) is a Block D, Group 8, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 55.845. The number of electrons in each of Iron's shells is 2, 8, 14, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d6 4s2. Iron Bohr ModelThe iron atom has a radius of 126 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 194 pm. Iron was discovered by humans before 5000 BC. In its elemental form, iron has a lustrous grayish metallic appearance. Iron is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust and the most common element by mass forming the earth as a whole. Iron is rarely found as a free element, since it tends to oxidize easily; it is usually found in minerals such as magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite, or siderite.Elemental Iron Though pure iron is typically soft, the addition of carbon creates the alloy known as steel, which is significantly stronger.


See more Bismuth products. Bismuth (atomic symbol: Bi, atomic number: 83) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 6 element with an atomic radius of 208.98040. The number of electrons in each of Bismuth's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3. Bismuth Bohr ModelThe bismuth atom has a radius of 156 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 207 pm. In its elemental form, bismuth is a silvery white brittle metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals and, with the exception of mercury, its thermal conductivity is lower than any other metal. Elemental BismuthBismuth has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall Effect of any metal (i.e., greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field). Bismuth is found in bismuthinite and bismite. It is also produced as a byproduct of lead, copper, tin, molybdenum and tungsten extraction. Bismuth was first discovered by Early Man. The name Bismuth originates from the German word 'wissmuth,' meaning white mass.

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