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About Iodine

Iodine Bohr

In the early nineteenth century, sodium carbonate, used in the production of saltpeter, was frequently extracted from seaweed. The process required drying and burning the seaweed, producing ash that was then washed with water. When this liquid was allowed to evaporate slowly, several useful compounds would precipitate out in sequence. The liquid that remained after the desired precipitates were collect was generally treated with sulfuric acid before disposal. In 1811, a Frenchman named Bernard Courtois accidentally added an excess of sulfuric acid in this final step, and was astonished when this produced a cloud of purple vapor which condensed to form a shiny crystalline substance on cold surfaces. Though he was employed in the production of saltpeter due to his financial circumstances, Courtois had had enough formal chemistry training to realize that his discovery was significant and suspected that he had produced a new element. Lacking the time or resources to study the material further, he passed the material on to two chemist friends, who continued his investigations and published their findings in 1813. More famous chemists quickly confirmed the nature of the substance as a new element, and one, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, suggested the name be derived from iodes, Greek for violet, due to the color of iodine’s vapor.

In some ways, iodine mirrors the properties of the lighter members of the halogen family: fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. Like the other halogens, iodine in elemental form exists as a diatomic molecule, and its compound with hydrogen, hydroiodic acid, is a strong acid that is a useful chemical reagent, particularly notable for its role in the industrial production of acetic acid. Hydroiodic acid is additionally used to produce other useful iodine compounds, particularly alkyl halides, which are important in organic synthesis. Silver iodides, like the other silver halides, are light-sensitive, a property exploited in film photography. Both bromine and iodine can be used in metal halide and halogen lamps, though designs using iodine are more common.

Unlike the other halogens, the heavier iodine is solid at room temperature, and, being less electronegative, is less reactive. This lower reactivity plays a role in making it less toxic in elemental form than the lighter halides--while fluorine, chlorine, and bromine cause burns upon contact with tissue, elemental iodine is considered an irritant, and requires prolonged contact with skin to cause significant damage. This allows the use of iodine solutions as topical disinfectants, often used to clean skin prior to surgery. Elemental iodine is not particularly soluble in water, so these solutions typically include solubilizing agents in addition to iodine. An additional unique use of iodine is in various analytical chemistry procedures, particularly the detection of glucose polymers such as starch. Iodine-impregnated polymer films are used as extremely cost-effective light polarizing optical filters found in products such as LCD screens, sunglasses, and optical microscopes.

The other unique applications of iodine relate to its role as an essential nutrient. Iodine is a necessary component of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, which regulate metabolic rate. Iodine deficiency causes enlargement of the thyroid gland, a condition known as goiter, as well as the myriad symptoms of hypothyroidism. Many populations lack access to sufficient dietary iodine, and many nations now mandate that table salt be treated with iodine salts in order to prevent endemic goiter. This is generally considered one of the simplest and most effective public health measures, as iodine deficiency is a leading cause of intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Iodine salts are common in nature, but relatively few sources of iodine are useful commercially. The most common source is brines that collect in used oil and gas wells, which may be purified and treated to produce iodides. The iodides are then reacted with chlorine to produce the pure element. The only other commercial source of iodine is caliche mineral formations in Chile; these are primarily mined for the extraction of sodium nitrate, but iodates and iodides are recovered as byproducts.


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Iodine forms compounds with many elements, but is less reactive than the other halogens. Iodine is only slightly soluble in water. It dissolves readily in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, or carbon disulfide to form purple solutions. Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine. Potassium iodide is used in photography.

Iodine Properties

Iodine(I) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol

Iodine Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7553-56-2, iodine has a lustrous metallic gray appearance as a solid. As a gas it has a violet appearance. Iodine is found mainly as the water-soluble iodide I3-. Iodine was discovered and first isolated by Bernard Courtois in 1811.

Symbol: I
Atomic Number: 53
Atomic Weight: 126.9
Element Category: halogen
Group, Period, Block: 17 (halogens), 5, p
Color: violet-dark gray, lustrous/ bluish-black solid, purple vapor
Other Names: Jod, Iodio
Melting Point: 113.7°C, 236.66°F, 386.85 K
Boiling Point: 184.4°C, 363.92°F, 457.55 K
Density: 4953 kg·m3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Density @ 20°C: 4.93 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 4940 kg·m3
Specific Heat: N/A
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: 386.65 K, 12.07 kPa
Critical Point: 819 K, 11.7 Mpa
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 15.27
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 41.67
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 107.24
Thermal Conductivity: 0.449 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: N/A
Electrical Resistivity: (0 °C) 1.3×107nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: (I2) 54.44 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: N/A
Shear Modulus: N/A
Bulk Modulus: 7.7 GPa
Poisson Ratio: N/A
Mohs Hardness: N/A
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: N/A
Pauling Electronegativity: 2.66
Sanderson Electronegativity: 2.78
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 2.21
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: 2.74 (14.3% s orbital)
Allen Electronegativity: 2.359
Pauling Electropositivity: 1.34
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 53
Protons: 53
Neutrons: 74
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
Atomic Radius: 140 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 139±3 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.36
Van der Waals Radius: 198 pm
Oxidation States: 5, 7, -1
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: orthorhombic
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 295.149
1st Ionization Energy: 1008.4 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1845.8 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 3184 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7553-56-2
EC Number: 231-442-4
MDL Number: MFCD00011355
Beilstein Number: 3587194
SMILES Identifier: [I]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/I
PubChem CID: 807
ChemSpider ID: 4514549
Earth - Total: 13.6 ppb 
Mercury - Total: 0.16 ppb 
Venus - Total: 14.3 ppb
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 60
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 2.9
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 490
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 80
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: N/A
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: N/A
Stream, ppb by weight: 5
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.04
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 260
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 30
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 200
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 10 atoms relative to C = 1000000
Universe, ppb by weight: 1
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.01
Discovered By: Bernard Courtois
Discovery Date: 1811
First Isolation: Bernard Courtois (1811)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Iodine

Iodine in large amounts is poisonous but in small doses is only slightly toxic. Safety data for Iodine and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Iodine.

Safety Data
Signal Word Warning
Hazard Statements H312-H332-H400
Hazard Codes Xn,N
Risk Codes 20/21-50
Safety Precautions 23-25-61
RTECS Number NN1575000
Transport Information UN 1759 8/PG 2
WGK Germany 2
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Environment-Hazardous to the aquatic environment
Review and Print SDS for Elemental Iodine


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Iodine

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. I-E-02-C, I-E-03-C, I-E-04-C, I-E-05-C

CAS #: 7553-56-2

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Acute Tox. 4 H312 Harmful in contact with skin.
Acute Tox. 4 H332 Harmful if inhaled.
Hazards not otherwise classified No information known.
Label elements
GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Hazard pictograms

Exclamation Mark - GHS07

Signal word Warning
Hazard statements
H312+H332 Harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled.
Precautionary statements
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…/if you feel unwell.
P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.
WHMIS classification
D1B - Toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects
E - Corrosive material
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)

Health (acute effects) = 2
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 2
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7553-56-2 iodine
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-442-4
Index number: 053-001-00-3


Description of first aid measures
After inhalation
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After skin contact
Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After eye contact Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
After swallowing Seek medical treatment.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents Product is not flammable. Use fire-fighting measures that suit the surrounding fire.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
This substance is an oxidizer and its heat of reaction with reducing agents or combustibles may cause ignition.
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Hydrogen iodide (HI)
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Environmental precautions: Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Dispose of contaminated material as waste according to section 13.
Ensure adequate ventilation.
Prevention of secondary hazards: No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
This substance is an oxidizer and its heat of reaction with reducing agents or combustibles may cause ignition.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles: No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Do not store with organic materials.
Store away from reducing agents.
Alkali metals
Store away from metal powders.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s) No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
7553-56-2 iodine (100.0%)
PEL (USA) Ceiling limit value: 1 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm
REL (USA) Ceiling limit value: 1 mg/m³, 0.1 ppm
TLV (USA) Short-term value: 1 mg/m³, 0.1** ppm
Long-term value: 0.1* mg/m³, 0.01* ppm
*as inhalable fraction and vapor;**vapor
EL (Canada) Short-term value: C 0.1 ppm
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Do not inhale gases / fumes / aerosols.
Avoid contact with the eyes and skin.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment: Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
Recommended filter device for short term use:
Use a respirator with type P100 (USA) or P3 (EN 143) cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. Risk assessment should be performed to determine if airpurifying
respirators are appropriate. Only use equipment tested and approved under appropriate government standards.
Protection of hands:
Impervious gloves
Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality. Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Material of gloves Nitrile rubber, NBR
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes) 480
Glove thickness 0.11 mm
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Various forms (powder/flake/crystalline/beads, etc.)
Color: Bluish-black
Odor: Irritating
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: Not determined
Boiling point/Boiling range: 183-186 °C (361-367 °F) (subl)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous) Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure at 20 °C (68 °F): 0.35 hPa
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 4.93 g/cm³ (41.141 lbs/gal)
Relative density Not determined.
Vapor density Not applicable.
Evaporation rate Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with
Water at 20 °C (68 °F): 0.34 g/l
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information No further relevant information available.


Reactivity No information known.
Chemical stability Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided: Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Reducing agents
Alkali metals
Organic materials
Metal powders
Hazardous decomposition products: Hydrogen iodide (HI)


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
Harmful if inhaled.
Harmful in contact with skin.
Danger through skin absorption.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for this substance.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
Oral LD50 22 gm/kg (mouse)
14 gm/kg (rat)
10 gm/kg (rabbit)
Skin irritation or corrosion: Corrosive effect on skin and mucous membranes.
Eye irritation or corrosion: Strong corrosive effect.
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity: No effects known.
ACGIH A4: Not classifiable as a human carcinogen: Inadequate data on which to classify the agent in terms of its carcinogenicity in humans and/or animals.
Reproductive toxicity: The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains reproductive data for this substance.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity: The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.
Swallowing will lead to a strong corrosive effect on mouth and throat and to the danger of perforation of esophagus and stomach.


Aquatic toxicity: No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil No further relevant information available.
Ecotoxical effects:
Remark: Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Also poisonous for fish and plankton in water bodies.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.
Other adverse effects No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Recommendation Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Recommendation: Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


UN proper shipping name
DOT Iodine
Transport hazard class(es)
Class 8 Corrosive substances.
Label 8+6.1
Class 8 (CT2) Corrosive substances
Label 8+6.1
Class 8 Corrosive substances.
Label 8+6.1
Packing group
Environmental hazards: Environmentally hazardous substance, solid
Special precautions for user Warning: Corrosive substances
EMS Number: F-A,S-B
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT): No
UN "Model Regulation": UN3495, Iodine, 8 (6.1), III


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
GHS label elements The product is classified and labeled in accordance with 29 CFR 1910 (OSHA HCS)
Hazard pictograms
Signal word Warning
Hazard statements
H312+H332 Harmful in contact with skin or if inhaled.
Precautionary statements
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
P312 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…/if you feel unwell.
P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings) Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use: For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006. Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the
market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use) Substance is not listed.
Chemical safety assessment: A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Iodine Isotopes

Iodine has one stable isotope: 127I.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
108I 107.94348(39)# 36(6) ms a to 104Sb; ß+ to 108Te; p to 107Te (1)# N/A 868.93 -
109I 108.93815(11) 103(5) µs p to 108Te; a to 105Sb (5/2+) N/A 886.32 -
110I 109.93524(33)# 650(20) ms ß+ to 110Te; a to 106Sb; ß+ + p to 109Sb; ß+ + a to 106Sn 1+# N/A 894.4 -
111I 110.93028(32)# 2.5(2) s ß+ to 111Te; a to 107Sb (5/2+)# N/A 902.48 -
112I 111.92797(23)# 3.42(11) s ß+ to 112Te; ß+ + p to 111Sb; ß+ + a to 108Sn; a to 108Sb N/A N/A 919.88 -
113I 112.92364(6) 6.6(2) s ß+ to 113Te; a to 109Sb; ß+ + a to 109Sn 5/2+# N/A 927.96 -
114I 113.92185(32)# 2.1(2) s ß+ to 114Te 1+ N/A 936.03 -
115I 114.91805(3) 1.3(2) min ß+ to 115Te (5/2+)# N/A 953.43 -
116I 115.91681(10) 2.91(15) s ß+ to 116Te 1+ N/A 961.51 -
117I 116.91365(3) 2.22(4) min ß+ to 117Te (5/2)+ N/A 969.59 -
118I 117.913074(21) 13.7(5) min ß+ to 118Te 2- N/A 977.66 -
119I 118.91007(3) 19.1(4) min ß+ to 119Te 5/2+ N/A 985.74 -
120I 119.910048(19) 81.6(2) min EC to 120Te 2- 1.23 993.82 -
121I 120.907367(11) 2.12(1) h EC to 121Te 5/2+ 2.3 1011.22 -
122I 121.907589(6) 3.63(6) min EC to 122Te 1+ 0.94 1019.3 -
123I 122.905589(4) 13.2235(19) h EC to 123Te 5/2+ 2.82 1027.37 -
124I 123.9062099(25) 4.1760(3) d EC to 124Te 2- 1.44 1035.45 -
125I 124.9046302(16) 59.400(10) d EC to 125Te 5/2+ 2.82 1043.53 -
126I 125.905624(4) 12.93(5) d EC to 126Te; ß- to 126Xe 2- 1.44 1051.61 -
127I 126.904473(4) STABLE - 5/2+ 2.81328 1059.69 100
128I 127.905809(4) 24.99(2) min EC to 128Te; ß- to 128Xe 1+ N/A 1067.77 -
129I 128.904988(3) 1.57(4)E+7 y ß- to 129Xe 7/2+ 2.621 1075.85 -
130I 129.906674(3) 12.36(1) h ß- to 130Xe 5+ 3.35 1083.93 -
131I 130.9061246(12) 8.02070(11) d ß- to 131Xe 7/2+ 2.742 1092 -
132I 131.907997(6) 2.295(13) h ß- to 132Xe 4+ N/A 1100.08 -
133I 132.907797(5) 20.8(1) h ß- to 133Xe 7/2+ 2.86 1108.16 -
134I 133.909744(9) 52.5(2) min ß- to 134Xe (4)+ N/A 1116.24 -
135I 134.910048(8) 6.57(2) h ß- to 135Xe 7/2+ N/A 1115 -
136I 135.91465(5) 83.4(10) s ß- to 136Xe (1-) N/A 1123.08 -
137I 136.917871(30) 24.13(12) s ß- to 136Xe; ß- + n to 135Xe (7/2+) N/A 1131.16 -
138I 137.92235(9) 6.23(3) s ß- to 137Xe; ß- + n to 136Xe (2-) N/A 1129.92 -
139I 138.92610(3) 2.282(10) s ß- to 138Xe; ß- + n to 139Xe 7/2+# N/A 1138 -
140I 139.93100(21)# 860(40) ms ß- to 139Xe; ß- + n to 140Xe (3)(-#) N/A 1136.76 -
141I 140.93503(21)# 430(20) ms ß- to 140Xe; ß- + n to 141Xe 7/2+# N/A 1144.84 -
142I 141.94018(43)# ~200 ms ß- to 141Xe; ß- + n to 142Xe 2-# N/A 1143.6 -
143I 142.94456(43)# 100# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 143Xe 7/2+# N/A 1151.68 -
144I 143.94999(54)# 50# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 144Xe 1-# N/A 1159.76 -