Application of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of as a Potential Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines via the Protein Kinase R-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase Pathway.

Author(s) Wen, Y.; Zhang, Z.J.; Huang, Y.P.; Wang, K.P.; Liu, K.; Zou, H.; Zhou, J.J.; Zou, Z.X.; Luo, S.L.; Liu, Z.T.; Wu, Z.C.; Chen, W.; Xiong, L.
Journal J Biomed Nanotechnol
Date Published 2019 Sep 01
Abstract

The present study aims to evaluate the effect of the ethyl acetate extract of (EAEC) as a novel photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) HCT116 and SW620 cells. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of EAEC were measured using a UV-vis spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. EAEC-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HCT116 and SW620 cells was detected using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) and glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG). The photo- and dark toxicities of EAEC were estimated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cellular uptake and localization of EAEC were detected by confocal laser fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess apoptosis and autophagy. The antitumor activity of EAEC was confirmed in a xenograft model. Finally, effects on the PERK pathway were verified using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. EAEC displayed absorption and fluorescence emission peaks at 660 nm and 678 nm, respectively. EAEC induced ROS production in CRC cells. Assessment of dark toxicity showed that treatment with EAEC alone induced little cytotoxicity in CRC or normal cells but that EAEC-PDT induced significant photocytotoxicity in CRC cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After cellular uptake, EAEC was located in the mitochondria. Treatment with EAEC-PDT reduced xenograft tumor size. Further evaluation suggested that activation of the PERK pathway mediates these effects, as the apoptotic rate and autophagy flux increased markedly after EAEC-PDT. EAEC, a natural photosensitizer extracted from , displays potential utility in PDT of CRC by targeting the PERK pathway.

DOI 10.1166/jbn.2019.2825
Keywords Acetates; Apoptosis; Autophagy; Cell Line; Cell Line, Tumor; Colorectal Neoplasms; Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress; Humans; Photochemotherapy; Photosensitizing Agents; Protein Kinases; Reactive Oxygen Species
ISSN 1550-7033
Citation Wen Y, Zhang Z-, Huang Y-, Wang K-, Liu K, Zou H, et al. Application of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of as a Potential Photosensitizer in Photodynamic Therapy Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines via the Protein Kinase R-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase Pathway. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2019;15(9):1867-1880.

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