Author(s) Chang, H.F.; Wang, S.L.; Lee, D.C.; Hsiao, S.SungYun; Hashimoto, Y.; Yeh, K.C.
Journal J Hazard Mater
Date Published 2020 04 05

The use of indium in semiconductor products has increased markedly in recent years. The release of indium into the ecosystem is inevitable. Under such circumstances, effective and accurate assessment of indium risk is important. An indispensable aspect of indium risk assessment is to understand the interactions of indium with plants, which are fundamental components of all ecosystems. Physiological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to indium were investigated by monitoring toxic effects, accumulation and speciation of indium in the plant. Indium can be taken up by plants and is accumulated mainly in roots. Limited indium root-to-shoot translocation occurs because of immobilization of indium in the root intercellular space and blockage of indium by the Casparian band in the endodermis. Indium caused stunted growth, oxidative stress, anthocyanization and unbalanced phosphorus nutrition. Indium jeopardizes phosphate uptake and translocation by inhibiting the accumulation of phosphate transporters PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTER1 (PHT1;1/4), responsible for phosphate uptake, and PHOSPHATE1 (PHO1), responsible for phosphate xylem loading. Organic acid secretion is stimulated by indium exposure. Secreted citrate could function as a potential detoxifier to lower indium uptake. Our findings provide insights into the potential fate and effects of indium in plants and will aid the evaluation of risks with indium contamination.

DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121983
ISSN 1873-3336
Citation J Hazard Mater. 2020;387:121983.