Dimers of glutaredoxin 2 as mitochondrial redox sensors in selenite-induced oxidative stress.

Author(s) Scalcon, V.; Tonolo, F.; Folda, A.; Bindoli, A.; Rigobello, M.Pia
Journal Metallomics
Date Published 2019 Jul 17

Glutaredoxin 2 (Grx2) has been previously shown to link thioredoxin and glutathione systems receiving reducing equivalents by both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione. Grx2 catalyzes protein glutathionylation/de-glutathionylation and can coordinate an iron-sulfur cluster, forming inactive dimers stabilized by two molecules of glutathione. This protein is mainly located in the mitochondrial matrix, though other isoforms have been found in the cytosolic and nuclear cell compartments. In the present study, we have analyzed the monomeric and dimeric states of Grx2 under different redox conditions in HeLa cells, and sodium selenite was utilized as the principal oxidizing agent. After selenite treatment, an increased glutathione oxidation was associated to Grx2 monomerization and activation, specifically in the mitochondrial compartment. Interestingly, in mitochondria, a large decline of thioredoxin reductase activity was also observed concomitantly to Grx2 activity stimulation. In addition, Grx2 monomerization led to an increase free iron ions concentration in the mitochondrial matrix, induction of lipid peroxidation and decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that the disassembly of Grx2 dimer involved the release of the iron-sulfur cluster in the mitochondrial matrix. Moreover, sodium selenite-triggered lipid and protein oxidation was partially prevented by deferiprone, an iron chelator with mitochondriotropic properties, suggesting a role of the iron-sulfur cluster release in the observed impairment of mitochondrial functions. Thus, by sensing the overall cellular redox conditions, mitochondrial Grx2 dimers become active monomers upon oxidative stress induced by sodium selenite with the consequent release of the iron-sulfur cluster, leading to activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

DOI 10.1039/c9mt00090a
ISSN 1756-591X
Citation Scalcon V, Tonolo F, Folda A, Bindoli A, Rigobello MP. Dimers of glutaredoxin 2 as mitochondrial redox sensors in selenite-induced oxidative stress. Metallomics. 2019;11(7):1241-1251.

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