Enhanced dissolution of silver nanoparticles in a physical mixture with platinum nanoparticles based on the sacrificial anode effect.

Author(s) Breisch, M.; Loza, K.; Pappert, K.; Rostek, A.; Rurainsky, C.; Tschulik, K.; Heggen, M.; Epple, M.; Tiller, J.C.; Schildhauer, T.A.; Köller, M.; Sengstock, C.
Journal Nanotechnology
Date Published 2020 Jan 24

A strategy to reduce implant-related infections is the inhibition of the initial bacterial implant colonization by biomaterials containing silver (Ag). The antimicrobial efficacy of such biomaterials can be increased by surface enhancement (nanosilver) or by creating a sacrificial anode system for Ag. Such a system will lead to an electrochemically driven enhanced Ag ion release due to the presence of a more noble metal. Here we combined the enlarged surface of nanoparticles (NP) with a possible sacrificial anode effect for Ag induced by the presence of the electrochemically more noble platinum (Pt) in physical mixtures of Ag NP and Pt NP dispersions. These Ag NP/Pt NP mixtures were compared to the same amounts of pure Ag NP in terms of cell biological responses, i.e. the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as well as the viability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). In addition, Ag NP was analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the dissolution rate of Ag NP was enhanced in the presence of Pt NP within the physical mixture compared to a dispersion of pure Ag NP. Dissolution experiments revealed a fourfold increased Ag ion release from physical mixtures due to enhanced electrochemical activity, which resulted in a significantly increased toxicity towards both bacteria and hMSC. Thus, our results provide evidence for an underlying sacrificial anode mechanism induced by the presence of Pt NP within physical mixtures with Ag NP. Such physical mixtures have a high potential for various applications, for example as antimicrobial implant coatings in the biomedicine or as bactericidal systems for water and surface purification in the technical area.

DOI 10.1088/1361-6528/ab4e48
ISSN 1361-6528
Citation Nanotechnology. 2020;31(5):055703.

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