Photocatalytic mineralization and degradation kinetics of sulphamethoxazole and reactive red 194 over silver-zirconium co-doped titanium dioxide: Reaction mechanisms and phytotoxicity assessment.

Author(s) Naraginti, S.; Li, Y.; Puma, G.Li
Journal Ecotoxicol Environ Saf
Date Published 2018 Sep 15

The photodegradation and phytotoxicity of the pharmaceutical antibiotic, sulphamethoxazole (SMX) and the azo-dye reactive-red-194 (RR194) under visible-light irradiation of TiO nanoparticles modified by silver and zirconium was investigated. The results indicated that sulphamethoxazole and its toxic degradation by product, 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole and RR-194 could be degraded efficiently by the co-doped Zr/Ag-TiO catalyst. PL studies and ROS generation results suggested that the effective charge separation was carried out while irradiation of the modified TiO nanoparticles. Phytotoxicity tests demonstrated lower percentage of germination in P. vulgaris (40%), V. radiata (30%) and P. lunatus (30%) of the seeds treated with 50 ppm of SMX, compared to the seeds treated with the degradation products (100%). The results with 50 ppm of RR-194 also showed lower percentage of germination in P. vulgaris (40%), V. radiata (50%) and P. lunatus (30%) compared to the degradation products (100%). Furthermore, significant increase in root and shoot development was observed in the seeds treated with the degraded products when compared with SMX and RR-194. Overall, this study contributes to further understanding the photodegradation mechanisms, degradation products and environmental fate of SMX and RR-194 in water which helps in the evaluation and mitigation of the environmental risk of SMX and RR-194 for water reuse and crop irrigation.

DOI 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.04.062
ISSN 1090-2414
Citation Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018;159:301309.

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