Preliminary study on the correlation between the trace Mn and the calcite polymorph in gallstones containing calcium carbonate from the northeast China via electron spin resonance.

Author(s) Lu, D.Y.; Gao, X.L.; Chi, Y.; Wang, H.G.; Yang, X.; Qiao, T.
Journal J Trace Elem Med Biol
Date Published 2020 Jul

Gallstones containing calcium carbonate (GCCC) from the northeast China were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spin resonance (ESR). The sextet signal arising from the allowed transitions of the trace Mn ions in GCCC was found to be ESR-detectable and strong. The XRD technique revealed the crystal habit of calcite in GCCC. Of the three polymorphs of calcium carbonate, no calcite was present as a solitary crystallization form, accompanied by aragonite or vaterite or both. The sextet ESR signal and the (104) main XRD peak at 2θ = ∼29.4° were employed as two probes to explore the relationship between trace Mn and calcite. The Mn content can be considered as an indicator of the amount of calcite in GCCC because of the existence of a correlation between Mn and calcite. The correlation between Mn and calcite, the relation between the levels of Mn and the type of gallstones, the structural preference of Mn to the calcite polymorph, and the influence of dietary habits on calcite in calcium carbonate gallstones are discussed.

DOI 10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126494
ISSN 1878-3252
Citation J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2020;60:126494.

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