Transformation-Dissolution Reactions Partially Explain Adverse Effects of Metallic Silver Nanoparticles to Soil Nitrification in Different Soils.

Author(s) Bollyn, J.; Willaert, B.; Kerré, B.; Moens, C.; Arijs, K.; Mertens, J.; Leverett, D.; Oorts, K.; Smolders, E.
Journal Environ Toxicol Chem
Date Published 2018 Apr 25

Risk assessment of metallic nanoparticles (NP) is critically affected by the concern that toxicity goes beyond that of the metallic ion. This study addressed this concern for soils with silver (Ag)-NP using the Ag-sensitive nitrification assay. Three agricultural soils (A,B,C) were spiked with equivalent Ag doses of either Ag-NP (d = 13 nm) or AgNO . Soil solution was isolated and monitored over 97 days with due attention to accurate Ag fractionation at low (∼10 µg L ) Ag concentrations. Truly dissolved (<1 kDa) Ag in the AgNO -amended soils decreased with reaction half-lives of 4 to 22 days depending on the soil, denoting important Ag-ageing reactions. In contrast, truly dissolved Ag in Ag-NP-amended soils first increased by dissolution and subsequently decreased by ageing; the concentration never exceeding that in the AgNO -amended soils. The half-lives of Ag-NP transformation-dissolution were about 4 days (soils A&B) and 36 days (soil C). The Ag toxic thresholds (EC10, mg Ag kg soil) of nitrification, either evaluated at 21 or 35 days after spiking, were similar between the two Ag forms (soils A&B) but were factors 3 to 8 lower for AgNO than for Ag-NP (soil C), largely corroborating with dissolution differences. This fate and bio-assay showed that Ag-NPs are not more toxic than AgNO at equivalent total soil Ag concentrations and that differences in Ag-dissolution at least partially explain toxicity differences between the forms and among soils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

DOI 10.1002/etc.4161
ISSN 1552-8618
Citation Environ Toxicol Chem. 2018.

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