Zinc Levels and Birth Weight in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Matched Cohort Study in China.

Author(s) Luo, J.; Wu, W.; Zhang, P.; Chen, X.; Feng, Y.; Ma, N.; Yang, H.; Wang, Y.; Li, M.; Xie, B.; Guo, P.; Liew, Z.; Deziel, N.C.; Vasiliou, V.; Shi, X.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Y.
Journal J Clin Endocrinol Metab
Date Published 2020 Jul 01

BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) has been suggested to impact fetal growth. However, the effect may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) due to its impact on fetal growth and placental transport. This study aims to investigate whether GDM modifies the association between Zn levels and birth weight.

METHOD: A cohort matched by GDM was established in Taiyuan, China, between 2012 and 2016, including 752 women with GDM and 744 women without. Dietary Zn intake was assessed during pregnancy. Maternal blood (MB) and cord blood (CB) Zn levels were measured at birth. Birth weight was standardized as the z score and categorized as high (HBW, >4000 g) and low (LBW, <2500 g) groups. Multivariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the association between Zn levels and birth weight in offspring born to women with or without GDM.

RESULTS: 88.8% (N = 1328) of the population had inadequate Zn intake during pregnancy. In women with GDM, MB Zn level was inversely associated with birth weight (β = -.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.34 to -0.01), while CB Zn level was positively associated with birth weight (β = .38; 95% CI, 0.06-0.70); suggestive associations were observed between MB Zn level and LBW (odds ratio 2.01; 95% CI, 0.95-4.24) and between CB Zn level and HBW (odds ratio 2.37; 95% CI, 1.08-5.21).

CONCLUSIONS: GDM may modify the associations between MB and CB Zn levels and birth weight in this population characterized by insufficient Zn intake. These findings suggest a previously unidentified path of adverse effects of GDM.

DOI 10.1210/clinem/dgaa171
ISSN 1945-7197
Citation J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020;105(7).