Tm:YVO4

High Purity Tm:YVO4


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-02-C Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-03-C Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-04-C Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-05-C Contact American Elements

Tm:YVO4 is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

Thulium Bohr Model Thulium Element SymbolThulium (atomic symbol: Tm, atomic number: 69) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 168.93421. The number of electrons in each of Thulium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2] and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f136s2. The thulium atom has a radius of 176 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 227 pm. In its elemental form, thulium has a silvery-gray appearance. Thulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to yttrium).Elemental Thulium Picture It is the least abundant of the rare earth elements. Thulium emits blue upon excitation, and is used in flat panel screens that depend critically on bright blue emitters. Thulium was discovered and first isolated by Per Teodor Cleve in 1879. It is named after "Thule," which is the ancient name of Scandinavia. For more information on Thulium, including properties, satefy data, research, and American Elements' catalog of Thulium products, visit the Thulium Information Center.

Yttrium Bohr ModelYttrium (Y) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolYttrium (atomic symbol: Y, atomic number: 39) is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 88.90585. The number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The yttrium atom has a radius of 180 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 219 pm. Yttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 and first isolated by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1840. Elemental Yttrium In its elemental form, Yttrium has a silvery white metallic appearance. Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. Yttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. The name yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where it was discovered. For more information on yttrium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of yttrium products, visit the Yttrium Information Center.

Vanadium (V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium (atomic symbol: V, atomic number: 23) is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 50.9415. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The vanadium atom has a radius of 134 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 179 pm. Vanadium was discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801 and first isolated by Nils Gabriel Sefström in 1830. In its elemental form, vanadium has a bluish-silver appearance. Elemental VanadiumIt is a hard, ductile transition metal that is primarily used as a steel additive and in alloys such as Titanium-6AL-4V, which is composed of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium and is the most common titanium alloy commercially produced. Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Vanadium was named after the word "Vanadis" meaning goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology. For more information on vanadium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of vanadium products, visit the Vanadium Information Center.


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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Recent Research & Development for Thulium

  • CMarisa J. Monreal, Robert K. Thomson, Brian L. Scott, Jaqueline L. Kiplinger, Enhancing the synthetic efficacy of thorium tetrachloride bis(1,2-dimethoxyethane) with added 1,2-dimethoxyethane: Preparation of metallocene thorium dichlorides, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 46, August 2014
  • Deepak Rawat, Smruti Dash, A.R. Joshi, Thermodynamic studies of thorium phosphate diphosphate and phase investigations of Th-P-O and Th-P-H2O systems, Thermochimica Acta, Volume 581, 10 April 2014
  • M.G. Brik, First-principles studies of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of a novel thorium compound Rb2Th7Se15, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 212, April 2014
  • Moshiel Biton, Assaf Shamir, Michael Shandalov, Neta Arad-Vosk, Amir Sa'ar, Eyal Yahel, Yuval Golan, Chemical deposition and characterization of thorium-alloyed lead sulfide thin films, Thin Solid Films, Volume 556, 1 April 2014
  • Clément Falaise, Christophe Volkringer, Thierry Loiseau, Isolation of thorium benzoate polytypes with discrete ThO8 square antiprismatic units involved in chain-like assemblies, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 39, January 2014
  • Yingjie Zhang, Mohan Bhadbhade, Jiabin Gao, Inna Karatchevtseva, Jason R. Price, Gregory R. Lumpkin, Synthesis and crystal structures of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) complexes with picolinamide and malonamide, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, Volume 37, November 2013
  • A.N. Turanov, V.K. Karandashev, V.M. Masalov, A.A. Zhokhov, G.A. Emelchenko, Adsorption of lanthanides(III), uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) from nitric acid solutions by carbon inverse opals modified with tetraphenylmethylenediphospine dioxide, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 405, 1 September 2013
  • K.O. Obodo, N. Chetty, A theoretical study of thorium titanium-based alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 440, Issues 1–3, September 2013
  • Meera Keskar, S.K. Sali, N.D. Dahale, K. Krishnan, N.K. Kulkarni, R. Phatak, S. Kannan, Thermal stability and expansion studies of cesium molybdates and cesium thorium molybdates, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 438, Issues 1–3, July 2013
  • D. Pérez Daroca, S. Jaroszewicz, A.M. Llois, H.O. Mosca, Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 437, Issues 1–3, June 2013

Recent Research & Development for Yttrium

  • Qizhen Duan, Qiuhong Yang, Shenzhou Lu, Cen Jiang, Qing Lu, Bo Lu, Fabrication and properties of Er/Tm/Pr tri-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • N. Stanford, R. Cottam, B. Davis, J. Robson, Evaluating the effect of yttrium as a solute strengthener in magnesium using in situ neutron diffraction, Acta Materialia, Volume 78, 1 October 2014
  • Dongzhou Ding, Bo Liu, Yuntao Wu, Jianhua Yang, Guohao Ren, Junfeng Chen, Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO:Ce crystals, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • Xiao-feng Zhang, Ke-song Zhou, Xu Wei, Bo-yu Chen, Jin-bing Song, Min Liu, In situ synthesis of a-alumina layer at top yttrium-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings for oxygen barrier, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
  • Satyam M. Shinde, Sanjay D. Gupta, Sanjeev K. Gupta, Prafulla K. Jha, Lattice dynamics and thermodynamical study of yttrium monochalcogenides, Computational Materials Science, Volume 92, September 2014
  • Yanxing Zhang, Zhaoming Fu, Mingyang Wang, Zongxian Yang, Oxygen vacancy induced carbon deposition at the triple phase boundary of the nickel/yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) interface, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 261, 1 September 2014
  • X.L. Li, S.M. He, X.T. Zhou, Y. Zou, Z.J. Li, A.G. Li, X.H. Yu, Effects of rare earth yttrium on microstructure and properties of Ni–16Mo–7Cr–4Fe nickel-based superalloy, Materials Characterization, Volume 95, September 2014
  • C. Karunakaran, S. Kalaivani, P. Vinayagamoorthy, Sasmita Dash, Optical, electrical and visible light-photocatalytic properties of yttrium-substituted BiVO4 nanoparticles, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 187, September 2014
  • Trygve Mongstad, Annett Thøgersen, Aryasomayajula Subrahmanyam, Smagul Karazhanov, The electronic state of thin films of yttrium, yttrium hydrides and yttrium oxide, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 128, September 2014
  • Aleksandr Pishtshev, Smagul Zh. Karazhanov, Role of oxygen in materials properties of yttrium trihydride, Solid State Communications, Volume 194, September 2014
  • Christos Argirusis, Georgios Antonaropoulos, Georgia Sourkouni, Francois Jomard, ?xygen tracer diffusion in single crystalline yttrium silicate, Solid State Ionics, Volume 262, 1 September 2014
  • Yuzheng Wang, He Yang, Xiangxin Xue, Synergistic antibacterial activity of TiO2 co-doped with zinc and yttrium, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • Zhiqi Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Ruiying Miao, Qiong Zhu, Dehong Chen, Xiaowei Zhang, Lin Zhou, Zongan Li, Shihong Yan, Purification of yttrium to 4N5+ purity, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • H. Zheng, H.B. Qin, P. Zheng, J.X. Deng, L. Zheng, M.G. Han, Preparation of low ferromagnetic resonance linewidth yttrium iron garnet films on silicon substrate, Applied Surface Science, Volume 307, 15 July 2014
  • Pinit Kidkhunthod, Santi Phumying, Santi Maensiri, X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12) nanocrystalline powders synthesized using egg white-based sol–gel route, Microelectronic Engineering, Available online 11 July 2014
  • Toshiki Miyazaki, Toru Tanaka, Yuki Shirosaki, Masakazu Kawashita, Yttrium phosphate microspheres with enriched phosphorus content prepared for radiotherapy of deep-seated Cancer, Ceramics International, Available online 9 July 2014
  • S.S. Chopade, C. Nayak, D. Bhattacharyya, S.N. Jha, R.B. Tokas, N.K. Sahoo, D.S. Patil, EXAFS Study on Yttrium oxide thin films deposited by RF plasma enhanced MOCVD under the influence of varying RF self -bias, Applied Surface Science, Available online 8 July 2014
  • N. Tahreen, D.F. Zhang, F.S. Pan, X.Q. Jiang, C. Li, D.Y. Li, D.L. Chen, Influence of yttrium content on phase formation and strain hardening behavior of Mg-Zn-Mn magnesium alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Available online 7 July 2014
  • Yu Liu, Ran Ran, Sidian Li, Yong Jiao, Moses O. Tade, Zongping Shao, Significant performance enhancement of yttrium-doped barium cerate proton conductor as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells through a Pd ingress–egress approach, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 257, 1 July 2014
  • Huarong Zhang, Guashuai Miao, Xingping Ma, Bei Wang, Haiwu Zheng, Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 55, July 2014

Recent Research & Development for Vanadium

  • Mulan Qin, Qiang Liang, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang, Qing Zhang, Yan Tang, Xiaoping Tan, Template-free synthesis of vanadium oxides nanobelt arrays as high-rate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • V.K. Yu, D. Chen, Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M. Lindvall, J. Gran, D. Sichen, Determination of the vanadium solubility in the Al2O3–CaO (25 mass%)–SiO2 system, Calphad, Volume 47, December 2014
  • T. Muroga, J.M. Chen, V.M. Chernov, R.J. Kurtz, M. Le Flem, Present status of vanadium alloys for fusion applications, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Kameel Arshad, Ming-Yue Zhao, Yue Yuan, Ying Zhang, Zhen-Hua Zhao, Bo Wang, Zhang-Jian Zhou, Guang-Hong Lu, Effects of vanadium concentration on the densification, microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • David McNulty, D. Noel Buckley, Colm O'Dwyer, Synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide materials and structures as Li-ion battery positive electrodes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Hyun-Seok Cho, Masato Ohashi, J.W. Van Zee, Absorption behavior of vanadium in Nafion®, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Danmei Yu, Yajuan Qiao, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Jie Wang, Chao Li, Changguo Chen, Qisheng Huo, Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • T. Herr, P. Fischer, J. Tübke, K. Pinkwart, P. Elsner, Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane–dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Dong-Hong Qiu, Qi-Ye Wen, Qing-Hui Yang, Zhi Chen, Yu-Lan Jing, Huai-Wu Zhang, Electrically-driven metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide thin films in a metal–oxide-insulator–metal device structure, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Chi Won Hwang, Hui-Man Park, Chang Min Oh, Taek Sung Hwang, Joonmok Shim, Chang-Soo Jin, Synthesis and characterization of vinylimidazole-co-trifluoroethylmethacrylate-co-divinylbenzene anion-exchange membrane for all-vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Levent Semiz, Nurdan Demirci Sankir, Mehmet Sankir, Influence of the basic membrane properties of the disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymer membranes on the vanadium redox flow battery performance, Journal of Membrane Science, Volume 468, 15 October 2014
  • Bao Zhang, Ya-dong Han, Jun-chao Zheng, Chao Shen, Lei Ming, Jia-feng Zhang, A novel lithium vanadium fluorophosphate nanosheet with uniform carbon coating as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 264, 15 October 2014
  • Minwoo Kang, Yongchan Suh, Yong-Jun Oh, Young-Kook Lee, The effects of vanadium on the microstructure and wear resistance of centrifugally cast Ni-hard rolls, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 609, 5 October 2014
  • Xiaoxin Wu, Hongfeng Xu, Pengcheng Xu, Yang Shen, Lu Lu, Jicheng Shi, Jie Fu, Hong Zhao, Microwave-treated graphite felt as the positive electrode for all-vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 263, 1 October 2014
  • Young Bok Kim, Moo Whan Shin, Synthesis of diverse structured vanadium pentoxides particles by the simplified hydrothermal method, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • L.A. Rochford, I. Hancox, T.S. Jones, Understanding domain symmetry in vanadium oxide phthalocyanine monolayers on Au (111), Surface Science, Volume 628, October 2014
  • Yushen Zhang, Rui Wang, Zhaozhong Qiu, Xiaohong Wu, Yang Li, Growth of a-axis oriented vanadium dioxide polycrystals on glass substrates, Materials Letters, Volume 131, 15 September 2014
  • Cangji Shi, X.-Grant Chen, Effect of vanadium on hot deformation and microstructural evolution of 7150 aluminum alloy, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume 613, 8 September 2014
  • Reddeppa Nadimicherla, Yueli Liu, Keqiang Chen, Wen Chen, Effect of polyethylene glycol on vanadium oxide nanotubes in lithium-ion batteries, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 127, 5 September 2014