Tm:YVO4

High Purity Tm:YVO4


Product Product Code Order or Specifications
(2N) 99% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-02-C Contact American Elements
(3N) 99.9% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-03-C Contact American Elements
(4N) 99.99% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-04-C Contact American Elements
(5N) 99.999% Tm:YVO4 TM-YVO-05-C Contact American Elements

Tm:YVO4 is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

Thulium Bohr Model Thulium Element SymbolThulium (atomic symbol: Tm, atomic number: 69) is a Block F, Group 3, Period 6 element with an atomic weight of 168.93421. The number of electrons in each of Thulium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2] and its electron configuration is [Xe]4f136s2. The thulium atom has a radius of 176 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 227 pm. In its elemental form, thulium has a silvery-gray appearance. Thulium is representative of the other lanthanides (rare earths) similar in chemistry to yttrium).Elemental Thulium Picture It is the least abundant of the rare earth elements. Thulium emits blue upon excitation, and is used in flat panel screens that depend critically on bright blue emitters. Thulium was discovered and first isolated by Per Teodor Cleve in 1879. It is named after "Thule," which is the ancient name of Scandinavia. For more information on Thulium, including properties, satefy data, research, and American Elements' catalog of Thulium products, visit the Thulium Information Center.

Yttrium Bohr ModelYttrium (Y) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolYttrium (atomic symbol: Y, atomic number: 39) is a Block D, Group 3, Period 5 element with an atomic weight of 88.90585. The number of electrons in each of yttrium's shells is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] and its electron configuration is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The yttrium atom has a radius of 180 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 219 pm. Yttrium was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 and first isolated by Carl Gustav Mosander in 1840. Elemental Yttrium In its elemental form, Yttrium has a silvery white metallic appearance. Yttrium has the highest thermodynamic affinity for oxygen of any element. Yttrium is not found in nature as a free element and is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals. While not part of the rare earth series, it resembles the heavy rare earths which are sometimes referred to as the "yttrics" for this reason. Another unique characteristic derives from its ability to form crystals with useful properties. The name yttrium originated from a Swedish village near Vaxholm called Yttbery where it was discovered. For more information on yttrium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of yttrium products, visit the Yttrium Information Center.

Vanadium (V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium (atomic symbol: V, atomic number: 23) is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 50.9415. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The vanadium atom has a radius of 134 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 179 pm. Vanadium was discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801 and first isolated by Nils Gabriel Sefström in 1830. In its elemental form, vanadium has a bluish-silver appearance. Elemental VanadiumIt is a hard, ductile transition metal that is primarily used as a steel additive and in alloys such as Titanium-6AL-4V, which is composed of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium and is the most common titanium alloy commercially produced. Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Vanadium was named after the word "Vanadis" meaning goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology. For more information on vanadium, including properties, safety data, research, and American Elements' catalog of vanadium products, visit the Vanadium Information Center.


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PACKAGING SPECIFICATIONS FOR BULK & RESEARCH QUANTITIES
Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes.


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Production Catalog Available in 36 Countries & Languages


Recent Research & Development for Thulium

  • Zhaofeng Wang, Yezhou Li, Xiong Liu, Xingmin Wei, Yueling Chen, Fei Zhou, Yuhua Wang, Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li4SrCa(SiO4)2 under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights, Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 59, November 2014
  • S. Kardellass, C. Servant, N. Selhaoui, A. Iddaoudi, Thermodynamic evaluations of the iron–lutetium and iron–thulium systems, Calphad, Volume 46, September 2014
  • Eugenio Dentoni Litta, Per-Erik Hellström, Christoph Henkel, Mikael Östling, Electrical characterization of thulium silicate interfacial layers for integration in high-k/metal gate CMOS technology, Solid-State Electronics, Volume 98, August 2014
  • Sung Woo Lee, Seong Kyun Park, Bong-Ki Min, Jun-Gill Kang, Youngku Sohn, Structural/spectroscopic analyses and H2/O2/CO responses of thulium(III) oxide nanosquare sheets, Applied Surface Science, Volume 307, 15 July 2014
  • Takafumi Miyazaki, Youji Tokumoto, Ryohei Sumii, Hajime Yagi, Noriko Izumi, Hisanori Shinohara, Shojun Hino, Photoelectron spectra of thulium atoms encapsulated C82 fullerene, Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 (III), Chemical Physics, Volumes 431–432, 18 March 2014
  • Hong-Xi Tsao, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Shih-Ting Lin, Jinn-Kong Sheu, Tzong-Yow Tsai, Passively gain-switched and self mode-locked thulium fiber laser at 1950 nm, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 56, March 2014
  • O. Annalakshmi, M.T. Jose, U. Madhusoodanan, J. Subramanian, B. Venkatraman, G. Amarendra, A.B. Mandal, Thermoluminescence dosimetric characteristics of thulium doped ZnB2O4 phosphor, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 146, February 2014
  • Taymour A. Hamdalla, Sherif S. Nafee, Radiation effects on the gain of thulium doped fiber amplifier: Experiment and modeling, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 55, February 2014
  • Zhongxing Jiao, Baofu Zhang, Biao Wang, Linearly polarized and narrow-linewidth pulse generation at high repetition rate from an all-fiber gain-switched Thulium-doped fiber laser, Optics & Laser Technology, Volume 55, February 2014
  • Felix Benz, Andreas Gonser, Reinhart Völker, Thomas Walther, Jan-Thomas Mosebach, Bianka Schwanda, Nicolas Mayer, Gunther Richter, Horst P. Strunk, Concentration quenching of the luminescence from trivalent thulium, terbium, and erbium ions embedded in an AlN matrix, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 145, January 2014
  • Jay Singh, Manish Srivastava, Appan Roychoudhury, Dong Won Lee, Seung Hee Lee, B.D. Malhotra, Optical and electro-catalytic studies of nanostructured thulium oxide for vitamin C detection, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 578, 25 November 2013
  • Jacek Swiderski, Maria Michalska, Wieslaw Pichola, Marcin Mamajek, Flatly broadened mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a cascade of thulium-doped silica fiber amplifiers, Optical Fiber Technology, Volume 19, Issue 5, October 2013
  • I.Z. Mitrovic, M. Althobaiti, A.D. Weerakkody, N. Sedghi, S. Hall, V.R. Dhanak, P.R. Chalker, C. Henkel, E. Dentoni Litta, P.-E. Hellström, M. Östling, Interface engineering of Ge using thulium oxide: Band line-up study, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 109, September 2013
  • W. Shin, Y.L. Lee, B.-A. Yu, Y.-C. Noh, T.-J. Ahn, Wavelength-tunable thulium-doped single mode fiber laser based on the digitally programmable micro-mirror array, Optical Fiber Technology, Volume 19, Issue 4, August 2013
  • Hrvoje Gebavi, Stefano Taccheo, Daniel Milanese, The enhanced two micron emission in thulium doped tellurite glasses, Optical Materials, Volume 35, Issue 10, August 2013
  • M. Fialho, K. Lorenz, S. Magalhães, J. Rodrigues, N.F. Santos, T. Monteiro, E. Alves, Lattice site location and luminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys doped with thulium ions, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Volume 307, 15 July 2013
  • Malgorzata Misiak, Katarzyna Prorok, Bartlomiej Cichy, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Wieslaw Strek, Thulium concentration quenching in the up-converting a-Tm3+/Yb3+ NaYF4 colloidal nanocrystals, Optical Materials, Volume 35, Issue 5, March 2013
  • Malgorzata Misiak, Katarzyna Prorok, Bartlomiej Cichy, Artur Bednarkiewicz, Wieslaw Strek, Corrigendum to “Thulium concentration quenching in the up-converting a-Tm3+/Yb3+NaYF4 colloidal nanocrystals” [Opt. Mater. 35 (5) (2013) 1124–1128], Optical Materials, Volume 35, Issue 9, July 2013
  • Jinseong Kim, Heesoo Lee, Substitutional analysis of perovskite-type dysprosium and thulium co-doped barium titanate ceramics by a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Materials Letters, Volume 92, 1 February 2013
  • Jinseong Kim, Taimin Noh, Seol Jeon, Sanghu Park, Hohwan Chun, Heesoo Lee, Deterioration behavior analysis of dysprosium and thulium co-doped barium titanate ceramics for multilayer ceramic capacitors, Ceramics International, Volume 38, Issue 8, December 2012

Recent Research & Development for Yttrium

  • N. Tahreen, D.F. Zhang, F.S. Pan, X.Q. Jiang, C. Li, D.Y. Li, D.L. Chen, Influence of yttrium content on phase formation and strain hardening behavior of Mg–Zn–Mn magnesium alloy, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 615, 5 December 2014
  • C.W. He, M.F. Barthe, P. Desgardin, S. Akhmadaliev, M. Behar, F. Jomard, Positron studies of interaction between yttrium atoms and vacancies in bcc iron with relevance for ODS nanoparticles formation, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Qizhen Duan, Qiuhong Yang, Shenzhou Lu, Cen Jiang, Qing Lu, Bo Lu, Fabrication and properties of Er/Tm/Pr tri-doped yttrium lanthanum oxide transparent ceramics, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 612, 5 November 2014
  • Toshiki Miyazaki, Toru Tanaka, Yuki Shirosaki, Masakazu Kawashita, Yttrium phosphate microspheres with enriched phosphorus content prepared for radiotherapy of deep-seated cancer, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part B, November 2014
  • Eran Shaffir, Yaron Kauffmann, Ilan Riess, Void formation in gold films on yttrium-doped zirconia in the initial stage of de-wetting, Acta Materialia, Volume 79, 15 October 2014
  • N. Stanford, R. Cottam, B. Davis, J. Robson, Evaluating the effect of yttrium as a solute strengthener in magnesium using in situ neutron diffraction, Acta Materialia, Volume 78, 1 October 2014
  • Xinxin Wang, Yimin Gao, Yefei Li, Ting Yang, Effect of yttrium on the corrosion behavior of 09CrCuSb alloy in NaCl solution, Corrosion Science, Volume 87, October 2014
  • Dongzhou Ding, Bo Liu, Yuntao Wu, Jianhua Yang, Guohao Ren, Junfeng Chen, Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO:Ce crystals, Journal of Luminescence, Volume 154, October 2014
  • S.S. Chopade, C. Nayak, D. Bhattacharyya, S.N. Jha, R.B. Tokas, N.K. Sahoo, D.S. Patil, EXAFS study on yttrium oxide thin films deposited by RF plasma enhanced MOCVD under the influence of varying RF self-bias, Applied Surface Science, Volume 314, 30 September 2014
  • Xiao-feng Zhang, Ke-song Zhou, Xu Wei, Bo-yu Chen, Jin-bing Song, Min Liu, In situ synthesis of a-alumina layer at top yttrium-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings for oxygen barrier, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
  • Satyam M. Shinde, Sanjay D. Gupta, Sanjeev K. Gupta, Prafulla K. Jha, Lattice dynamics and thermodynamical study of yttrium monochalcogenides, Computational Materials Science, Volume 92, September 2014
  • Yanxing Zhang, Zhaoming Fu, Mingyang Wang, Zongxian Yang, Oxygen vacancy induced carbon deposition at the triple phase boundary of the nickel/yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) interface, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 261, 1 September 2014
  • X.L. Li, S.M. He, X.T. Zhou, Y. Zou, Z.J. Li, A.G. Li, X.H. Yu, Effects of rare earth yttrium on microstructure and properties of Ni–16Mo–7Cr–4Fe nickel-based superalloy, Materials Characterization, Volume 95, September 2014
  • C. Karunakaran, S. Kalaivani, P. Vinayagamoorthy, Sasmita Dash, Optical, electrical and visible light-photocatalytic properties of yttrium-substituted BiVO4 nanoparticles, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 187, September 2014
  • Trygve Mongstad, Annett Thøgersen, Aryasomayajula Subrahmanyam, Smagul Karazhanov, The electronic state of thin films of yttrium, yttrium hydrides and yttrium oxide, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 128, September 2014
  • Aleksandr Pishtshev, Smagul Zh. Karazhanov, Role of oxygen in materials properties of yttrium trihydride, Solid State Communications, Volume 194, September 2014
  • Christos Argirusis, Georgios Antonaropoulos, Georgia Sourkouni, Francois Jomard, ?xygen tracer diffusion in single crystalline yttrium silicate, Solid State Ionics, Volume 262, 1 September 2014
  • Yuzheng Wang, He Yang, Xiangxin Xue, Synergistic antibacterial activity of TiO2 co-doped with zinc and yttrium, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • Zhiqi Zhang, Zhiqiang Wang, Ruiying Miao, Qiong Zhu, Dehong Chen, Xiaowei Zhang, Lin Zhou, Zongan Li, Shihong Yan, Purification of yttrium to 4N5+ purity, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • Pinit Kidkhunthod, Santi Phumying, Santi Maensiri, X-ray absorption spectroscopy study on yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12) nanocrystalline powders synthesized using egg white-based sol–gel route, Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 126, 25 August 2014

Recent Research & Development for Vanadium

  • Chih-Wei Hu, Tsan-Yao Chen, Kai-Sheng Shih, Pin-Jiun Wu, Hui-Chia Su, Ching-Yu Chiang, An-Feng Huang, Han-Wei Hsieh, Chia-Chin Chang, Bor-Yuan Shew, Chih-Hao Lee, Real-time investigation on the influences of vanadium additives to the structural and chemical state evolutions of LiFePO4 for enhancing the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Rajagopalan Badrinarayanan, Jiyun Zhao, K.J. Tseng, Maria Skyllas-Kazacos, Extended dynamic model for ion diffusion in all-vanadium redox flow battery including the effects of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Guanjie Wei, Xinzhuang Fan, Jianguo Liu, Chuanwei Yan, Investigation of the electrospun carbon web as the catalyst layer for vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 270, 15 December 2014
  • Yuexia Yang, Wenwen Xu, Ruisong Guo, Lan Liu, Shanshan Wang, Dong Xie, Yizao Wan, Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Zn-doped, carbon coated lithium vanadium phosphate cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Nicholas S. Hudak, Practical thermodynamic quantities for aqueous vanadium- and iron-based flow batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 269, 10 December 2014
  • Mulan Qin, Qiang Liang, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang, Qing Zhang, Yan Tang, Xiaoping Tan, Template-free synthesis of vanadium oxides nanobelt arrays as high-rate cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • V.K. Yu, D. Chen, Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 268, 5 December 2014
  • M. Lindvall, J. Gran, D. Sichen, Determination of the vanadium solubility in the Al2O3–CaO (25 mass%)–SiO2 system, Calphad, Volume 47, December 2014
  • T. Muroga, J.M. Chen, V.M. Chernov, R.J. Kurtz, M. Le Flem, Present status of vanadium alloys for fusion applications, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • Kameel Arshad, Ming-Yue Zhao, Yue Yuan, Ying Zhang, Zhen-Hua Zhao, Bo Wang, Zhang-Jian Zhou, Guang-Hong Lu, Effects of vanadium concentration on the densification, microstructures and mechanical properties of tungsten vanadium alloys, Journal of Nuclear Materials, Volume 455, Issues 1–3, December 2014
  • David McNulty, D. Noel Buckley, Colm O'Dwyer, Synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium oxide materials and structures as Li-ion battery positive electrodes, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Hyun-Seok Cho, Masato Ohashi, J.W. Van Zee, Absorption behavior of vanadium in Nafion®, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 267, 1 December 2014
  • Min Chen, Lei Xu, Wei-jun Huang, Xue-liang Yin, Nan Wang, Properties of MgO–Fe–C refractories as linings of vanadium-extraction converter, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 15, December 2014
  • Danmei Yu, Yajuan Qiao, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Jie Wang, Chao Li, Changguo Chen, Qisheng Huo, Mica-like vanadium pentoxide-nanostructured thin film as high-performance cathode for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 266, 15 November 2014
  • Xiaona Hu, Zhe Yan, Qi Li, Qian Yang, Liping Kang, Zhibin Lei, Zong-Huai Liu, Graphene/vanadium oxide hybrid electrodes for electrochemical capacitor, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Volume 461, 5 November 2014
  • Julia Melke, Peter Jakes, Joachim Langner, Lars Riekehr, Ulrike Kunz, Zhirong Zhao-Karger, Alexei Nefedov, Hikmet Sezen, Christof Wöll, Helmut Ehrenberg, Christina Roth, Carbon materials for the positive electrode in all-vanadium redox flow batteries, Carbon, Volume 78, November 2014
  • Kang Zhao, Letian Teng, Yufei Tang, Xi Chen, Branched titanium oxide/vanadium oxide composite nanofibers formed by electrospinning and dipping in vanadium sol, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 9, Part B, November 2014
  • T. Herr, P. Fischer, J. Tübke, K. Pinkwart, P. Elsner, Increasing the energy density of the non-aqueous vanadium redox flow battery with the acetonitrile-1,3-dioxolane–dimethyl sulfoxide solvent mixture, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 265, 1 November 2014
  • Dong-Hong Qiu, Qi-Ye Wen, Qing-Hui Yang, Zhi Chen, Yu-Lan Jing, Huai-Wu Zhang, Electrically-driven metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide thin films in a metal–oxide-insulator–metal device structure, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Lunzhen Wei, Yuhang Wang, Yanli Wang, Ming Xu, Gengfeng Zheng, Morphology-dependent vanadium oxide nanostructures grown on Ti foil for Li-ion battery, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 432, 15 October 2014