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About Vanadium

Vanadium Bohr

Vanadium is a d-block transition metal that exists in nature in multiple oxidation states, each of which imparts a distinctive color to its salts: purple/lavender/violet (+2), green (+3), blue (+4), and yellow (+5). This brilliance of these colors inspired Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Selfström to name the new element he had isolated from a sample of wrought iron after Vanadis, another name for Freyja, the Norse goddess of beauty, love, and fertility. However, Selfström’s 1830 experiment does not mark the element’s first discovery; 29 years earlier in Mexico, Spanish mineralogist Andrés Manuel del Río had isolated numerous compounds from a sample of a mineral he termed “brown lead” (later renamed vanadinite) and determined that they contained a new element he named panchromium, for multi-colored, and later renamed to erythronium, Greek for “red,” after the red color the compounds took when heated. However, upon sharing his results with the Academie des Sciences de Paris, he was advised that he had merely produced an impure form of chromium. After attempts to obtain the metal by Berzelius and Wohler, and Henry Roscoe succeeded in 1867 by reducing the chloride with hydrogen. Industrial applications of vanadium compounds were limited to use as catalysts for the production of pigments and as mordants in dyeing printing fabrics until 1900, when Henry Ford employed vanadium steel in the production of the Model T.

Natural vanadium is composed of two isotopes, one stable (51V) and one radioactive (50V) and is the fifth most abundant transition metal in the earth’s crust, though it does not occur freely. The most common mineral sources of vanadium are vanadinite, carnotite and patronite, but it can also be found in over 65 different minerals including ores of titanium, uranium, and iron, phosphate rocks, and fossil fuel deposits such as crude and shale oils in the form of organic complexes. Vanadium pentoxide is the most common form of the element obtained; the metal is more difficult to produce due to its high reactive at the melting point of its oxide. Methods of obtaining high purity vanadium include reduction of its chloride with magnesium under an inert gas atmosphere and calcium reduction of the oxide in a pressure vessel. Metallic vanadium is ductile and malleable with a shiny gray appearance and is occasionally classified as a refractory metal owing to its high melting point and resistance to corrosion. The metal possesses a relatively low density and medium hardness and resists oxidation and attack by alkalis and most acids at temperatures lower than 600 C.

Its thermal and electrical conductivity and strength is superior to that of titanium, and the majority of its commercial use (~92%) is in the production of alloys. Adding even a small amount of vanadium to steel dramatically increases its tensile strength and hardness, in addition to providing shock and vibration resistance; vanadium steel, also referred to as “tool steel” or “high-speed steel,” is one of the strongest alloys used in armor plates, piston rods, jet engines, cutting tools, and other equipment parts. Vanadium steel is also used in the cores of nuclear reactors due to its resistance to corrosion and high temperatures in addition to vanadium’s excellent thermal neutron-capture cross-section. Ferrovanadium is a similarly strong, shock resistant and corrosion resistant iron alloy produced by reduction of vanadium pentoxide by aluminum or silicon in the presence of iron under an electric arc furnace. Ferrovanadium melts more easily than pure vanadium, and is often used as a master alloy to be added to steel before casting. Common nonferrous vanadium alloys include Titanium 6AL-4V used in aircraft and dental alloys (owing to the natural antibacterial properties of titanium); vanadium foil is also used to clad titanium to steel. Vanadium-silicon (V3Si) is classified as an A15-phase compound, an intermetallic crystalline compound composed of a transition metal (“A”) and any other element (“B”) with the formula A3B; V3Si was the first such compound discovered to exhibit superconductivity in 1953. Additionally, mixing vanadium and gallium in the ratio V3Ga yields a superconducting alloy used in the coils of superconducting electromagnets, either in the form of a wire or tape.

The most commercially significant form of vanadium is vanadium pentoxide. It is primarily used is in the production of ferrovanadium and as an industrial catalyst for the production of sulfuring acid; it can as function as a mordant or a ceramic pigment. Compounds that contain vanadium in a (+5) oxidation state are used as oxidizing agents in chemical reactions, whereas vanadium(2+) compounds are used as reducing agents. The pentoxide and ammonium metavanadate are both excellent oxidation employed by the chemical industry to produce sulfuric acid, synthetic plastics, and other organic compounds. Some vanadium compounds have applications in the field of medicine such as treatments for diabetes mellitus and nutritional supplements; the isotope 51V is used in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR spectroscopy). However, all vanadium compounds are considered toxic to humans to some degree, particularly those with vanadium in a higher valence state. Trace amounts of the element exist in foods, the major source of exposure to the general public, but powdered forms of vanadium compounds are particularly hazardous due to the danger of inhalation and the ease with which the lungs absorb soluble vanadium salts.

The role of vanadium in advanced and emerging technologies is increasing due to the unique properties of its compounds. In particular, vanadium redox (or flow) batteries have gained attention in recent years as viable alternatives to the dominant lithium-ion technology currently in use. These rechargeable batteries store energy via continuously recyclable aqueous solutions of vanadium redox couples in both electrodes, eliminating the risk of cross-contamination of the electrolyte and yielding a low cost, high-efficiency energy source that has been investigated for potential use in hybrid and electric vehicles. Two-dimensional nanosheets of vanadium pentoxide have demonstrated favorable properties that could lead to their use as electrodes in supercapacitors.Vanadium dioxide has also gained attention for its unique properties. It is one of the few known materials that undergoes a metal-insulator transition: acting as an insulator at low temperatures, the material rearranges its electrons in an abrupt shift (taking only 10-trillionth of a second) to act like a conductor at 67 degrees Celsius. At 65 degrees, it enters a solid-state triple point--the first material in which researchers have ever accurately pinpointed. Some experiments into the uses of vanadium dioxide include the work of researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who used vanadium dioxide to fabricate a micro-sized artificial muscle-motor that exhibited extremely high power density and resilience. Thin ribbons of vanadium dioxide alternating with graphene have shown to be a highly efficient cathode material for lithium-ion batteries that could significantly increase power and energy density, and it has also been investigated as a metamaterial.

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Vanadium is highly resistant to corrosion, and thus is commonly added to stainless steel alloys. Vanadium compounds are used in advanced ceramics. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Sputtering TargetVanadium's most important compound, vanadium pentoxide, is used as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid. Vanadium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium Oxide (V2O3) PowderElemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Vanadium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area. Oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Vanadium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Vanadium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Vanadium Properties

Vanadium(V) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolVanadium is a Block D, Group 5, Period 4 element. Vanadium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Vanadium's shells is 2, 8, 11, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The vanadium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-62-2, vanadium has a blue-silver-grey appearance. High Purity (99.999%) Vanadium (V) Metal Vanadium is found in fossil fuel deposits and 65 different minerals. Vanadium is not found free in nature; however, once isolated it forms an oxide layer that stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Although Vanadium was first discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio in 1801, metallic vanadium was not isolated until 1867 when Henry Enfield Roscoe extracted it from vanadium chloride (VCl3). Vanadium was named after "Vanadis" the goddess of beauty in Scandinavian mythology.

Symbol: V
Atomic Number: 23
Atomic Weight: 50.9414
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 5, 4, d
Color: silvery gray metallic
Other Names: Vanadin, Vanadio, Vanádio
Melting Point: 1910 °C, 3470 °F, 2183 K
Boiling Point: 3407 °C, 6165 °F, 3680 K
Density: 6.1 at 20 °C
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 5.5 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 6.1 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 6110 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.39 (kJ/kg K)
Superconductivity Temperature: 0.022 [or -273.128 °C (-459.63 °F)] (under pressure) K
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 17.6
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 459.7
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 510.95
Thermal Conductivity: 30.7 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.4 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 197 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 24.89 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 128 GPa
Shear Modulus: 47 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 160 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.37
Mohs Hardness: 6.7
Vickers Hardness: N/A
Brinell Hardness: N/A
Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 4560 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.63
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.39
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.45
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.37
Reflectivity (%): 61
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 23
Protons: 23
Neutrons: 28
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Atomic Radius: 134 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 153±8 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.44
Van der Waals Radius: 200 pm
Oxidation States: 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: body-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 50.637
1st Ionization Energy: 650.92 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1414.49 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2828.10 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-62-2
EC Number: 231-171-1
MDL Number: MFCD00011453
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [V]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/V
PubChem CID: 23990
ChemSpider ID: 22426
Earth - Total: 82 ppm 
Mercury - Total: 63 ppm 
Venus - Total: 86 ppm 
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 1.5
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.18
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 190000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 75000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 400
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 9
Stream, ppb by weight: 1
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.02
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 62000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 23000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 30
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 4
Universe, ppb by weight: 1000
Universe, ppb by atom: 20
Discovered By: Andrés Manuel del Río
Discovery Date: 1801
First Isolation: Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand (1864)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Vanadium

Several vanadium compounds are toxic to some creatures despite the fact that it is an essential trace element. Safety data for Vanadium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Vanadium.

Safety Data
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number YW1355000
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Vanadium Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Vanadium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. V-M-02, V-M-03, V-M-04, V-M-05

CAS #: 7440-62-2

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
No information known.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)

Health (acute effects) = 0
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-62-2 Vanadium
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-171-1


Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Vanadium oxides
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Do not store together with acids.
Store away from oxidizing agents.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available


Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values that have to be monitored at the workplace.
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment: Not required.
Recommended filter device for short term use:
Use a respirator with type N95 (USA) or PE (EN 143) cartridges as a backup to engineering controls. Risk assessment should be performed to determine if air-purifying respirators are appropriate. Only use equipment tested and approved under appropriate government standards.
Protection of hands: Not required.
Material of gloves
Nitrile rubber, NBR
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes) 480
Glove thickness
0.11 mm
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1910 °C (3470 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 3407 °C (6165 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous): Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 6.11 g/cm³ (50.988 lbs/gal)
Bulk density at 20 °C (68 °F): 4000 kg/m³
Relative density: Not determined.
Vapor density: Not applicable.
Evaporation rate: Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Insoluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
Reacts with strong oxidizing agents
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Hazardous decomposition products:
Vanadium oxides


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for this substance.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: No data
Skin irritation or corrosion: May cause irritation
Eye irritation or corrosion: May cause irritation
Sensitization: No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity: No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure: No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
UN "Model Regulation":


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings): 7440-62-2 Vanadium
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No.1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on themarket and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Vanadium Isotopes

Naturally occurring vanadium is composed of one stable isotopes 51V and one radioactive isotope 50V.

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
40V 40.01109(54)# N/A p to 40Ti 2-# N/A 287.09 -
41V 40.99978(22)# N/A p to 41Ti 7/2-# N/A 306.35 -
42V 41.99123(21)# <55 ns p to 42Ti 2-# N/A 321.88 -
43V 42.98065(25)# 80# ms ß+  to 43Ti 7/2-# N/A 340.21 -
44V 43.97411(13) 111(7) ms ß+ to 44Ti; a to 40Sc (2+) N/A 353.88 -
45V 44.965776(18) 547(6) ms ß+  to 45Ti 7/2- N/A 370.34 -
46V 45.9602005(11) 422.50(11) ms ß+  to 46Ti 0+ N/A 383.08 -
47V 46.9549089(9) 32.6(3) min EC to 47Ti 3/2- N/A 396.75 -
48V 47.9522537(27) 15.9735(25) d EC to 48Ti 4+ 2.01 406.69 -
49V 48.9485161(12) 329(3) d EC to 49Ti 7/2- 4.47 418.49 -
50V 49.9471585(11) 1.4 x 1017 y ß+ to 50Ti; ß- to 50Cr 6+ 3.34745 427.5 0.25
51V 50.9439595(11) STABLE - 7/2- 5.1514 439.31 99.75
52V 51.9447755(11) 3.743(5) min ß- to 52Cr 3+ N/A 446.46 -
53V 52.944338(3) 1.60(4) min ß- to 53Cr 7/2- N/A 454.54 -
54V 53.946440(16) 49.8(5) s ß- to 54Cr 3+ N/A 460.75 -
55V 54.94723(11) 6.54(15) s ß- to 55Cr (7/2-)# N/A 467.9 -
56V 55.95053(22) 216(4) ms ß- to 56Cr; ß- + n to 55Cr (1+) N/A 473.18 -
57V 56.95256(25) 0.35(1) s ß- to 57Cr; ß- + n to 56Cr (3/2-) N/A 479.4 -
58V 57.95683(27) 191(8) ms ß- to 58Cr; ß- + n to 57Cr 3+# N/A 483.75 -
59V 58.96021(33) 75(7) ms ß- to 59Cr; ß- + n to 58Cr 7/2-# N/A 488.1 -
60V 59.96503(51) 122(18) ms ß- to 60Cr; ß- + n to 59Cr 3+# N/A 491.52 -
61V 60.96848(43)# 47.0(12) ms ß- to 61Cr 7/2-# N/A 496.81 -
62V 61.97378(54)# 33.5(20) ms ß- to 62Cr 3+# N/A 500.23 -
63V 62.97755(64)# 17(3) ms ß- to 63Cr (7/2-)# N/A 504.58 -
64V 63.98347(75)# 10# ms [>300 ns] Unknown N/A N/A 507.07 -
65V 64.98792(86)# 10# ms Unknown 5/2-# N/A 511.42 -