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About Titanium

Titanium Bohr Model

Titanium was discovered in 1791 by Reverend William Gregor, an English clergyman and mineralogist. Though he did write a paper describing his find, a black magnetic sand now known as ilmenite, and hypothesizing that it contained a new element, he was not confident in his discovery, which got little scientific attention. Several years later, Martin Heinrich Klaproth confirmed the presence of a new element in a similar magnetic mineral, and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. Many failed attempts were made to isolate the pure element from such minerals before Lars Fredrik Nilson and Otto Pettersson finally succeeded in 1887.

The vast majority of titanium ore is processed to titanium dioxide. This material is used in the production of other titanium materials, including ceramics, but most often is used directly in a vast range of products. With a very high index of refraction and optical dispersion, the bright white powder is an excellent white pigment and opacifier used widely in producing paints, paper, plastics, and ceramic glazes. It is additionally added as a strengthening filler in cements and graphite composites, and used in sunscreen due to its ability to absorb UV light. The material is also of interest for photocatalytic abilities; in the presence of sunlight, it produces hydroxyl radicals. This phenomenon is exploited in applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells, self-cleaning glass coatings, hydrolysis catalysis, and paints and cements that can reduce air pollution.

Titanium metal is valued for use in a wide range of alloys because of its high strength to density ratio and high resistance to corrosion and fatigue. These alloys are used widely in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. Additionally, titanium is used in jewelry for its high durability and ability to be anodized to produce a wide variety of colors. The metal is also biocompatible, and is frequently used in medical implants and surgical tools, either alone or as part of metal-ceramic composites. Titanium is especially useful in dental and orthopedic implants, as it can integrate with bone.

The other major commercial use of titanium is in ceramics. Titanium ceramics are typically extremely hard, and often exhibit useful electrical properties. They may be used in composite structural materials such as cermets or in extremely hard cutting tools for metal machining, or in technical applications such as electronics or medical implants. Barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate are important electroceramics found in ceramic capacitors, transductors, and sensors. Lithium titanate is an important conductive ceramic use in some lithium ion batteries and in molten carbonate fuel cells. Titanium nitride is notable for being both conductive and biocompatible, which allows its use in implants including bioelectronics, and as a barrier metal in the manufacture of microelectronics. Other notable titanium compounds include titanium disulfide, an inorganic material of interest for use in improved battery designs and nanostructured hydrogen storage solutions.

Titanium occurs primarily as the minerals rutile and ilmenite, which are often found as components of heavy mineral sands. These minerals cannot be processed to titanium metal through high-temperature reduction with carbon, as is the case for some other metals. Instead, the pure metal is produced by first chlorinating titanium minerals, purifying the resultant titanium chloride via distillation, and then reducing the purified chemical using magnesium or sodium in an inert atmosphere. This complex processes largely accounts for high cost of titanium metal, but alternative, potentially cheaper processes are under development. Some titanium alloys can be made via direct reduction of titanium ores, and this allows their production without the expense of producing pure titanium. Additionally, most commercial titanium compounds acquired from mineral concentrates without passing through a metallic phase. The most commonly used titanium compound, titanium dioxide, is produced using either the sulfate process or the chloride process, depending on the source material and the purity required in the final product.


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High Purity (99.999%) Titanium Oxide (TiO2) Powder In its metallic form, titanium is both strong, lightweight, and highly resistant to corrosion. Thus it can be found in numerous aerospace and military applications. Titanium dioxide is used to produce a white pigment. High Purity (99.999%) Titanium (Ti) Sputtering TargetTitanium is the basis for numerous commercially essential compound groups, such as titanates for electronic and di-electric formulations and in crystal growth for ruby and sapphire lasers. Titanium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Titanium nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area. Titanium oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Titanium fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Titanium is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Titanium Properties

Titanium(Ti) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolTitanium is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of Titanium's shells is 2, 8, 10, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The titanium atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is Titanium Bohr ModelIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-32-6, titanium has a silvery grey-white appearance. Titanium's properties are chemically and physically similar to zirconium, both of which have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table. Elemental Titanium Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Titanium is found in igneous rocks and the sediments derived from them. Titanium was first discovered by William Gregor in 1791 and is named after the word Titanos which is Greek for Titans.

Symbol: Ti
Atomic Number: 22
Atomic Weight: 47.867
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 4, 4, d
Color: silvery white/ metallic
Other Names: Titane, Titanio, Titan, Titanij
Melting Point: 1668 °C, 3034 °F, 1941 K
Boiling Point: 3287 °C, 5949 °F, 3560 K
Density: 4.506 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 4.11 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 4.50 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 4507 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.54 (kJ/kg/K)
Superconductivity Temperature: 0.40 [or -272.7 °C (-458.9 °F)] K
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 20.9
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 425.5
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 467.14
Thermal Conductivity: 21.9 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.6 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 420 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: 63,000 psi (434 MPa)
Molar Heat Capacity: 25.060 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 116 GPa
Shear Modulus: 44 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 110 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.32
Mohs Hardness: 6
Vickers Hardness: 970 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 716 MPa
Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 5,090 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.54
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.09
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.32
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.46
Reflectivity (%): N/A
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 22
Protons: 22
Neutrons: 26
Electron Configuration: [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Atomic Radius: 147 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 160±8 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.84
Van der Waals Radius: N/A
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: hexagonal close-packed
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 7.62
1st Ionization Energy: 658.82 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1309.85 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 2652.56 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-32-6
EC Number: 231-142-3
MDL Number: MFCD00011264
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Ti]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ti
PubChem CID: 23963
ChemSpider ID: 22402
Earth - Total: 820 ppm
Mercury - Total: 630 ppm
Venus - Total: 850 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 1
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.13
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 6600000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 2900000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 4000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 100
Stream, ppb by weight: 3
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.06
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 550000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 230000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 3000
Universe, ppb by atom: 80
Discovered By: William Gregor
Discovery Date: 1791
First Isolation: Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Titanium

Titanium metal is not considered to be toxic, although titanium in the form of metal shavings or powder is considered a fire hazard. Safety data for Titanium and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Titanium.

Safety Data
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Titanium Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Titanium Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. TI-M-02, TI-M-03, TI-M-04, TI-M-05

CAS #: 7440-32-6

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
No information known.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 1
Physical Hazard = 1
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-32-6 Titanium
Identification number(s):
EC number:


Description of first aid measures
After inhalation
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After skin contact
Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
After swallowing
Seek medical treatment.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No information known.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Store away from oxidizing agents.
Store away from halogens.
Store away from halocarbons.
Store away from mineral acids
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
The product does not contain any relevant quantities of materials with critical values
that have to be monitored at the workplace.
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Use suitable respirator when high concentrations are present.
Protection of hands:
Impervious gloves
Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality. Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes)
Not determined
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Dark grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1668 °C (3034 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 3277 °C (5931 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 4.506 g/cm³ (37.603 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Insoluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
Oxidizing agents
Mineral acids
Hazardous decomposition products:
Metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
No effects known.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
May cause irritation
Eye irritation or corrosion:
May cause irritation
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains reproductive data for this substance.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
No effects known.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards: Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information: DOT
Marine Pollutant (DOT): No


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Titanium Isotopes

Titanium has five naturally occurring isotopes: 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%).

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
38Ti 38.00977(27)# <120 ns 2p to 36Sc 0+ N/A 273.92 -
39Ti 39.00161(22)# 31(4) ms [31(+6-4) ms] ß- + p to 38Ca; ß- to 39Sc; ß- + p to 37K 3/2+# N/A 289.45 -
40Ti 39.99050(17) 53.3(15) ms ß- to 40Sc; ß- + p to 39Ca 0+ N/A 307.78 -
41Ti 40.98315(11)# 80.4(9) ms ß- + p to 41Ca; ß- to 41Sc 3/2+ N/A 322.38 -
42Ti 41.973031(6) 199(6) ms ß- to 42Sc 0+ N/A 339.77 -
43Ti 42.968522(7) 509(5) ms ß- to 43Sc 7/2- N/A 352.51 -
44Ti 43.9596901(8) 60.0(11) y EC to 44Sc 0+ N/A 368.97 -
45Ti 44.9581256(11) 184.8(5) min EC to 45Sc 7/2- 0.095 377.99 -
46Ti 45.9526316(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 391.65 8.25
47Ti 46.9517631(9) STABLE - 5/2- -0.78848 400.66 7.44
48Ti 47.9479463(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 412.47 73.72
49Ti 48.9478700(9) STABLE - 7/2- -1.10417 420.55 5.41
50Ti 49.9447912(9) STABLE - 0+ N/A 431.42 5.18
51Ti 50.946615(1) 5.76(1) min ß- to 51V 3/2- N/A 437.64 -
52Ti 51.946897(8) 1.7(1) min ß- to 52V 0+ N/A 445.72 -
53Ti 52.94973(11) 32.7(9) s ß- to 53V (3/2)- N/A 451 -
54Ti 53.95105(13) 1.5(4) s ß- to 54V 0+ N/A 457.21 -
55Ti 54.95527(16) 490(90) ms ß- to 55V 3/2-# N/A 461.57 -
56Ti 55.95820(21) 164(24) ms ß- to 56V; ß- + n to 55V 0+ N/A 466.85 -
57Ti 56.96399(49) 60(16) ms ß- to 57V; ß- + n to 56V 5/2-# N/A 470.27 -
58Ti 57.96697(75)# 54(7) ms ß- to 58V 0+ N/A 475.56 -
59Ti 58.97293(75)# 30(3) ms ß- to 59V (5/2-)# N/A 478.04 -
60Ti 59.97676(86)# 22(2) ms ß- to 60V 0+ N/A 482.4 -
61Ti 60.98320(97)# 10# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 61V; ß- + n to 60V 1/2-# N/A 483.95 -
62Ti 61.98749(97)# 10# ms Unknown 0+ N/A 488.31 -
63Ti 62.99442(107)# 3# ms Unknown 1/2-# N/A 489.86 -