Gallium Arsenide

CAS #

GaAs

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(5N) 99.999% Gallium Arsenide Ingot GA-AS-05-I Request Quote
(5N) 99.999% Gallium Arsenide Lump GA-AS-05-L Request Quote
(5N) 99.999% Gallium Arsenide Powder GA-AS-05-P Request Quote
(5N) 99.999% Gallium Arsenide Sputtering Target GA-AS-05-ST Request Quote
(5N) 99.999% Gallium Arsenide Wafer GA-AS-05-WSX Request Quote

Properties

Compound Formula AsGa
Molecular Weight 144.64
Appearance Gray crystalline solid
Melting Point 1238°C
Boiling Point N/A
Density 5.32 g/cm3
Monoisotopic Mass 143.84717
Exact Mass 143.84717

Health & Safety Information

Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H301 + H331-H410
Hazard Codes T,N
Risk Codes 23/25-50/53
Safety Statements 20/21-28-45-60-61
RTECS Number LW8800000
Transport Information UN 1557 6.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 3

View and Print SDS

SAFETY DATA SHEET

Date Accessed: 02/13/2016
Date Revised: 05/15/2015

SECTION 1. IDENTIFICATION

Product Name: Gallium Arsenide

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. GA-AS-05-I, GA-AS-05-L, GA-AS-05-P, GA-AS-05-ST, GA-AS-05-WSX

CAS #: 1303-00-0

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
GHS06 Skull and crossbones
Acute Tox. 3 H301 Toxic if swallowed.
Acute Tox. 3 H331 Toxic if inhaled.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
T; Toxic
R23/25: Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
N; Dangerous for the environment
R50/53: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
Not applicable
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is classified and labeled according to the CLP regulation.
Hazard pictograms

Skull and Crossbones - GHS06

GHS06
Signal word
Danger
Hazard statements
H301+H331 Toxic if swallowed or if inhaled.
Precautionary statements
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P301+P310 IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/ doctor/...
P304+P340 IF INHALED: Remove person to fresh air and keep comfortable for breathing.
P311 Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/...
P405 Store locked up.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/
national/international regulations.
WHMIS classification
D1A - Very toxic material causing immediate and serious toxic effects
D2A - Very toxic material causing other toxic effects
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)
HEALTH
FIRE
REACTIVITY
3

1
Health (acute effects) = 3
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 1
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.


SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
1303-00-0 Gallium arsenide
Identification number(s):
EC number:
215-114-8
Index number:
033-002-00-5


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Description of first aid measures
General information
Immediately remove any clothing soiled by the product.
Remove breathing apparatus only after contaminated clothing has been completely removed.
In case of irregular breathing or respiratory arrest provide artificial respiration.
After inhalation
Supply fresh air. If required, provide artificial respiration. Keep patient warm.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After skin contact
Immediately wash with water and soap and rinse thoroughly.
Seek immediate medical advice.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. Then consult a doctor.
After swallowing
Do not induce vomiting; immediately call for medical help.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 5. FIREFIGHTING MEASURES

Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
CO2, sand, extinguishing powder. Do not use water.
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Toxic metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
Wear self-contained respirator.
Wear fully protective impervious suit.


SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Wear protective equipment. Keep unprotected persons away.
Ensure adequate ventilation
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Dispose of contaminated material as waste according to section 13.
Ensure adequate ventilation.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

Handling
Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Open and handle container with care.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No information known.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Storage
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
No information known.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS/PERSONAL PROTECTION

Additional information about design of technical systems:
Properly operating chemical fume hood designed for hazardous chemicals and having an average face velocity of at least 100 feet per minute.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
Arsenic, elemental, and inorganic
compounds (except arsine), as As
mg/m3
ACGIH TLV 0.01; Confirmed human carcinogen
Belgium TWA 0.2
Denmark TWA 0.05
Finland TWA Carcinogen
France VME 0.2
Hungary 0.5-STEL; Carcinogen
Korea TWA 0.01; Confirmed human carcinogen
Norway 0.02
Poland TWA 0.01
Sweden NGV 0.03; Carcinogen
Switzerland TWA 0.1; Carcinogen
United Kingdom TWA 0.1; Carcinogen
USA PEL 0.01
1303-00-0 Gallium arsenide (100.0%)
REL (USA) Ceiling limit value: 0.002* mg/m³
as As; *15-min; See Pocket Guide App. A
TLV (USA) Long-term value: 0.01 mg/m³
as As; BEI
EL (Canada) Long-term value: 0.0003 mg/m³
IARC 1
EV (Canada) Short-term value: 0.05 mg/m³
Long-term value: 0.01 mg/m³
as As
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Keep away from foodstuffs, beverages and feed.
Remove all soiled and contaminated clothing immediately.
Wash hands before breaks and at the end of work.
Store protective clothing separately.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Refer to 29CFR1910.1018 for regulations on respiratory protection required during exposure to inorganic arsenic.
Use self-contained respiratory protective device in emergency situations.
Protection of hands:
Impervious gloves
Check protective gloves prior to each use for their proper condition.
The selection of suitable gloves not only depends on the material, but also on quality. Quality will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Appearance:
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Dark grey/Black
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1238 °C (2260 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: Not determined
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flash point: Not applicable
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 5.31 g/cm³ (44.312 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Reacts
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
Viscosity:
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Reactivity
No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
No information known.
Hazardous decomposition products:
Arsenic compounds


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
Toxic if inhaled.
Toxic if swallowed.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
Irritant to skin and mucous membranes.
Eye irritation or corrosion:
Irritating effect.
Sensitization:
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
Carcinogenicity:
EPA-A: human carcinogen: sufficient evidence from epidemiologic studies to support a
causal association between exposure and cancer.
IARC-1: Carcinogenic to humans: sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity.
ACGIH A1: Confirmed human carcinogen: Agent is carcinogenic to humans based on epidemiologic studies of, or convincing clinical evidence in, exposed humans.
Carcinogen as defined by OSHA.
NTP-K: Known to be carcinogenic: sufficient evidence from human studies.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
Acute arsenic poisoning from ingestion results in marked irritation of the stomach and intestines with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In severe cases, the vomitus and stools are bloody and the patient goes into collapse and shock with weak, rapid pulse, cold sweats, coma and death.
Chronic arsenic poisoning may cause disturbances of the digestive system such as loss of appetite, cramps, nausea, constipation or diarrhea.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) reports the following effects in laboratory animals:
Behavioral - excitement.
Behavioral - ataxia.
Behavioral - somnolence (
general depressed activity).
Behavioral - food intake (animal).
Biochemical - Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels - true cholinesterase.
Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) -
Plasma proteins not involving coagulation.
Biochemical - Metabolism (Intermediary) - other.
Blood - changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol).
Blood - pigmented or nucleated red blood cells.
Blood - changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count.
Brain and Coverings - recordings from specific areas of CNS.
Endocrine - changes in spleen weight.
Endocrine - changes in thymus weight.
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder - changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis).
Liver - changes in liver weight.
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory stimulation.
Lung, Thorax, or Respiration - changes in lung weight.
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis).
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - dyspnea.
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - tumors.
Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - other changes.
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - weight loss or decreased weight gain.
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - changes in calcium.
Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - changes in phosphorus.
Peripheral Nerve and Sensation - flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage).
Related to Chronic Data - death.
Sense Organs and Special Senses (Eye) - conjunctive irritation.
Reproductive - Maternal Effects - other effects.
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus).
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count).
Reproductive - Paternal Effects - testes, epididymis, sperm duct.
Reproductive - Fertility - post-implantation mortality (e.g. dead/or resorbed implants per total number of implants).
Reproductive - Fertility - other measures of fertility.
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - craniofacial (including nose and tongue).
Reproductive - Specific Developmental Abnormalities - musculoskeletal system.
Reproductive - Effects on Embryo or Fetus - fetal death.
Tumorigenic - carcinogenic by RTECS criteria.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity
Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Ecotoxical effects:
Remark:
Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system, even in small quantities.
Danger to drinking water if even extremely small quantities leak into the ground.
Also poisonous for fish and plankton in water bodies.
May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Very toxic for aquatic organisms
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT:
Not applicable.
vPvB:
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

Waste treatment methods
Recommendation
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Recommendation:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION

UN-Number
DOT, IMDG, IATA
UN1557
UN proper shipping name
DOT
Arsenic compounds, solid, n.o.s. (Gallium arsenide)
IMDG, IATA
ARSENIC COMPOUND, SOLID, N.O.S. (Gallium arsenide)
Transport hazard class(es)
DOT
Class
6.1 Toxic substances.
Label
6.1
Class
6.1 (T5) Toxic substances
Label
6.1
IMDG, IATA
Class
6.1 Toxic substances.
Label
6.1
Packing group
DOT, IMDG, IATA
II
Environmental hazards:
Environmentally hazardous substance, solid
Special precautions for user
Warning: Toxic substances
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
DOT
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
No
UN "Model Regulation":
UN1557, Arsenic compounds, solid, n.o.s. (Gallium arsenide), 6.1, Il


SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
1303-00-0 Gallium arsenide
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
1303-00-0 Gallium arsenide
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
This product contains arsenic and is subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 and 40CFR372.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Refer to 29CFR1910.1018 for regulations concerning inorganic arsenic.
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


16. OTHER INFORMATION

Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

About

Gallium Arsenide is a semiconductor with superior electronic properties to silicon. It has a higher saturated electron velocity and higher electron mobility, allowing it to function at microwave frequencies. American Elements produces to many standard grades when applicable, including Mil Spec (military grade); ACS, Reagent and Technical Grade; Food, Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Grade; Optical Grade, USP and EP/BP (European Pharmacopoeia/British Pharmacopoeia) and follows applicable ASTM testing standards. Typical and custom packaging is available. Additional technical, research and safety (MSDS) information is available as is a Reference Calculator for converting relevant units of measurement.

Synonyms

Gallium monoarsenide; Arsinidynegallium; gallanylidynearsane

Chemical Identifiers

Formula GaAs
CAS 1303-00-0
Pubchem CID 14770
MDL MFCD00011017
EC No. 215-114-8
IUPAC Name gallanylidynearsane
Beilstein Registry No. N/A
SMILES [As]#[Ga]
InchI Identifier InChI=1S/As.Ga
InchI Key JBRZTFJDHDCESZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Packaging Specifications

Typical bulk packaging includes palletized plastic 5 gallon/25 kg. pails, fiber and steel drums to 1 ton super sacks in full container (FCL) or truck load (T/L) quantities. Research and sample quantities and hygroscopic, oxidizing or other air sensitive materials may be packaged under argon or vacuum. Shipping documentation includes a Certificate of Analysis and Safety Data Sheet (SDS). Solutions are packaged in polypropylene, plastic or glass jars up to palletized 440 gallon liquid totes, and 36,000 lb. tanker trucks.

Related Products & Element Information

See more Arsenic products. Arsenic (atomic symbol: As, atomic number: 33) is a Block P, Group 15, Period 4 element with an atomic radius of 74.92160. Arsenic Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of arsenic's shells is 2, 8, 18, 5 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3. The arsenic atom has a radius of 119 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 185 pm. Arsenic was discovered in the early Bronze Age, circa 2500 BC. It was first isolated by Albertus Magnus in 1250 AD. In its elemental form, arsenic is a metallic grey, brittle, crystalline, semimetallic solid. Elemental ArsenicArsenic is found in numerous minerals including arsenolite (As2O3), arsenopyrite (FeAsS), loellingite (FeAs2), orpiment (As2S3), and realgar (As4S4). Arsenic has numerous applications as a semiconductor and other electronic applications as indium arsenide, silicon arsenide and tin arsenide. Arsenic is finding increasing uses as a doping agent in solid-state devices such as transistors.

See more Gallium products. Gallium (atomic symbol: Ga, atomic number: 31) is a Block P, Group 13, Period 4 element with an atomic weight of 69.723.The number of electrons in each of Gallium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 3 and its electron configuration is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The gallium atom has a radius of 122.1 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 187 pm. Gallium Bohr ModelGallium was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1871. It was first discovered and isolated by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875. In its elemental form, gallium has a silvery appearance. Elemental GalliumGallium is one of three elements that occur naturally as a liquid at room temperature, the other two being mercury and cesium. Gallium does not exist as a free element in nature and is sourced commercially from bauxite and sphalerite. Currently, gallium is used in semiconductor devices for microelectronics and optics. The element name originates from the Latin word 'Gallia', the old name of France, and the word 'Gallus,' meaning rooster.

Recent Research

Neurotypic cell attachment and growth on III-nitride lateral polarity structures., Bain, L E., Kirste R, Johnson C A., Ghashghaei H T., Collazo R, and Ivanisevic A , Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Jan 1, Volume 58, p.1194-8, (2016)

Effect of gallium nitrate on the expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand in osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro., Li, Jingwu, Bin Wang Guang-, Feng Xue, Zhang Jing, and Fu Qin , Mol Med Rep, 2016 Jan, Volume 13, Issue 1, p.769-77, (2016)

Antibacterial properties of poly (octanediol citrate)/gallium-containing bioglass composite scaffolds., Zeimaran, Ehsan, Pourshahrestani Sara, Djordjevic Ivan, Pingguan-Murphy Belinda, Kadri Nahrizul Adib, Wren Anthony W., and Towler Mark R. , J Mater Sci Mater Med, 2016 Jan, Volume 27, Issue 1, p.18, (2016)

Controlled Electrochemical Deformation of Liquid-Phase Gallium., Chrimes, Adam F., Berean Kyle J., Mitchell Arnan, Rosengarten Gary, and Kalantar-Zadeh Kourosh , ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016 Feb 4, (2016)

Exciton pumping across type-I gallium chalcogenide heterojunctions., Cai, Hui, Kang Jun, Sahin Hasan, Chen Bin, Suslu Aslihan, Wu Kedi, Peeters Francois, Meng Xiuqing, and Tongay Sefaattin , Nanotechnology, 2016 Feb 12, Volume 27, Issue 6, p.065203, (2016)

Electron microscopy imaging of proteins on gallium phosphide semiconductor nanowires., Hjort, Martin, Bauer Mikael, Gunnarsson Stefan, Mårsell Erik, Zakharov Alexei A., Karlsson Gunnel, Sanfins Elodie, Prinz Christelle N., Wallenberg Reine, Cedervall Tommy, et al. , Nanoscale, 2016 Feb 11, Volume 8, Issue 7, p.3936-3943, (2016)

Ecotoxicological assessment of solar cell leachates: Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells show higher activity than organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells., Brun, Nadja Rebecca, Wehrli Bernhard, and Fent Karl , Sci Total Environ, 2016 Feb 1, Volume 543, Issue Pt A, p.703-14, (2016)

Synthesis and Structural Studies of Gallium(III) and Iron(III) Hemicryptophane Complexes., Gosse, Isabelle, Robeyns Koen, Bougault Catherine, Martinez Alexandre, Tinant Bernard, and Dutasta Jean-Pierre , Inorg Chem, 2016 Feb 1, Volume 55, Issue 3, p.1011-3, (2016)

The use of gallium-67 scintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute interstitial nephritis., Graham, François, Lord Martin, Froment Daniel, Cardinal Héloise, and Bollée Guillaume , Clin Kidney J, 2016 Feb, Volume 9, Issue 1, p.76-81, (2016)