Indium (In) Elemental Symbol
Indium



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Indium Indium Indio Índio Indio Indium

Indium(In) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Indium is a Block P, Group 13, Period 5 element. Indium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Indium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 3 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-74-6, Indium has a silvery lustrous gray appearance. The indium atom has a radius of 162.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 193.pm. Indium has found application in semi-conductor materials and other electronic applications. It is used in making bearing alloys, germanium transistors, rectifiers, and photoconductors. Elemental IndiumIndium is used to make low-melting alloys, such as an alloy of 24% indium - 76% Indium is liquid at room temperature. Indium can be plated onto metal and evaporated onto glass, forming a mirror as good as that made with silver but with more resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Indium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Indium Oxide (In2O3) PowderIndium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. High Purity (99.99999%) Indium (In) Sputtering TargetIndium is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Indium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Indium is only slightly toxic. Safety data for Indium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific indium material or compound referenced in the “Indium Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Indium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: In Melting Point: 429.7485 K, 156.5985 °C, 313.8773 °F
Atomic Number: 49 Boiling Point: 2345 K, 2072 °C, 3762 °F
Atomic Weight: 114.82 g.mol -1 Density: 7.31 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.02 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 13, 5, p Specific Heat: 234 @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 )
  Heat of Vaporization 231.8 kJ mol-1
Heat of Fusion 3.27 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Atomization 243.72 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 49 Thermal Conductivity: 81.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 49 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 32.1 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 64 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 83.7 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 2, 8, 18, 18, 3 Electronegativity: 1.78 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 167 pm Tensile Strength: 7.99 tons/in.2
Covalent Radius: 142±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 193.pm Young's Modulus: 11 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: <10
Crystal Structure: tetragonal Poisson Ratio: 0.4498
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.2
1st Ionization Energy: 558.30 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: <10
2nd Ionization Energy: 1820.67 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 8.83 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2704.50 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1215 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-74-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514408 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5359967 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.3 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134048 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.003
EC Number: 231-180-0 Discovered By: Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1863
SMILES Identifier: [In]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/In Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: APFVFJFRJDLVQX-
UHFFFAOYSA-N
 
       
       
       
       
       

Indium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Indium Balls
Indium Bands
Indium Bars
Indium Bismuth
Indium Bits
Indium Board
Indium Briquette
Indium (By Crystallization)
Indium Capsules
Indium Circle
Indium Chunk
Indium Coil
Indium Coins
Indium Concentrate
Indium Cylinder
Indium Disc
Indium Dust
Indium Flanges
Indium Foil
Indium Fragments
Indium Grain
Indium Granules
Indium Honeycomb
Indium Ingot
Indium Lump
Indium Mesh
Indium Metal
Indium Nugget
Indium Particles
Indium Parts
Indium Pebbles
Indium Pellets
Indium Pieces
Indium Pills
Indium Plates
Indium Powder
Indium Precipitate
Indium Puck
Indium Residue
Indium Ribbon
Indium Rings
Indium Rocks
Indium Rod
Indium Samples
Indium Scraps
Indium Segments
Indium Shaving
Indium Sheets
Indium Shot
Indium Sleeves
Indium Slugs
Indium Specimens
Indium Spheres
Indium Spring
Indium Strip
Indium Tape
Indium Tube
Indium Wafer
Indium Wire
Ultra Thin Indium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Copper Indium Sputtering Target
Copper-Indium-Gallium Sputtering Target
CIGSS Sputtering Target
CIS Sputtering Target
IGZO Sputtering Target
Indium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Indium Arsenide Sputtering Target
Indium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Indium Moly Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Indium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Selenide Sputtering Target
Indium(II) Selenide Sputtering Target
Indium Sputtering Target
Indium Sulfide Sputtering Target
Indium Telluride Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Sputtering Target
Indium Zinc Sputtering Target
Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO) Sputtering Target
Magnesium Indium Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Indium-113 Isotope
Indium-113 Oxide Isotope


 
Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cadmium Indium Telluride Granules
Cadmium Indium Telluride Powder
Cadmium Indium Telluride Lump
CIGS Nanoparticles
CIGS Powder
CIGS Single Crystal
CIGS Sputtering Target
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)
CIGS Particles
CIGSS Powder
CIS Particles
CIS Powder
CIS Single Crystal
CIGS Granule
CIGS Lump
CIGS Powder
CIGSS Granule
CIGSS Powder
CIGSS Lump
Gallium Indium Antimonide
Gallium Indium Arsenide
Gallium Indium Eutectic
InAlAs
InAlGaP
InAlP
Indium Aluminum Arsenic Granule
Indium Aluminum Arsenic Lump
Indium Aluminum Arsenic Powder
InAsSb
Indium Antimonide
Indium Arsenide
Indium Arsenide Wafer
Indium Gallium Arsenic Granules
Indium Gallium Arsenic Lump
Indium Gallium Arsenic Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Granules
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenic Lump
Indium Gallium Nitride
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO)
Indium Nitride
Indium Oxide Coated PET
Indium Phosphide
Indium Phosphide Arsenide
Indium Phosphide Wafer
Indium Selenide Crystal
Indium(II) Selenide InSe
Indium(III) Selenide In2Se3
Indium Telluride
Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET
InGaAlAs
InGaAsP
InGaP
InPb
Mercury Indium Selenium Granule
Mercury Indium Selenium Powder
Mercury Indium Selenium Lump
Silver Indium Sulfur Granule
Silver Indium Sulfur Lump
Silver Indium Sulfur Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Granules
Silver Indium Tellurium Powder
Silver Indium Tellurium Lump
Zinc Indium Tellurium Granules
Zinc Indium Tellurium Lump
Zinc Indium Tellurium Powder


Indium Oxide Forms

Copper Oxide/Indium Oxide Granules
Indium-113 Oxide Isotope
Indium Oxide Granules
Indium Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Oxide Particles
Indium Oxide Pellets
Indium Oxide Pieces
Indium Oxide Powder
Indium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Shot
Indium Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Tablets
Indium Tin Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Zinc Oxide


Nanomaterials

CIS Nanoparticles
Indium Hydroxide Nanoparticles
Indium Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Nanoparticles
Indium Nanorods
Indium Phosphorous Nanoparticles
Indium Tin Oxide Nanopowder
InP/ZnS Quantum Dots
ZnCuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots



Alloys

Bismuth Indium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Indium Bismuth Alloy
Indium Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Indium Cadmium Alloy
Indium Lead Alloy
Indium Lead Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Rod
Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Silver Foil Indium Tin Foil
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Metal
Lead Indium Alloy
Lead Indium Antimony Alloy
Lead Indium Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Silver Copper Indium Alloy
Tin Lead Indium Alloy
Tin Indium Alloy


Compounds

Indium Acetate
Indium Acetate Solution
Indium Bromide
Indium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Indium Carbonate
Indium Chloride
Indium(II) Chloride
Indium(III) Chloride Hydrate
Indium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Indium Chloride Solution
Indium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrate
Indium(I) Chloride Anhydrous
Indium Fluoride
Indium(III) Fluoride Trihydrate
Indigane (Indium Hydride)
Indium Hydroxide
Indium(I) Iodide InI
Indium(I) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Indium(III) Iodide InI3
Indium Nitrate
Indium(III) Nitrate Hydrate
Indium Nitrate Solution
Indium Nitride
Indium Oxide
Indium Oxide/Tin Oxide
Indium(III) Perchlorate Hydrate
Indium Phosphate
Indium Sulfamate
Indium Sulfate
Indium Sulfate Solution
Indium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Indium Sulfide
Indium(II) Sulfide
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
Indium Tin Oxide Pieces


Organometallic Compounds

Indium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Indium(III) Isopropoxide Solution
Indium Acetylacetonate
Indium(III) Acetylacetonate
Indium Hexafluoropentanedionate
Indium Methoxyethoxide
Indium Methyl (trimethylacetyl)acetate
Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Chloride
Indium(III) tert-butoxide Solution
Indium Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Trimethylindium


Recent Research & Development for Indium

  • Numerical comparison of iodine-based and indium-based antibody biodistributions. Williams LE, Wu AM, Kenanova VE, Olafsen T, Yazaki PJ. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2014
  • Direct carboxylation of allylic halides with carbon dioxide in the presence of indium. Miao B, Ma S. Chem Commun (Camb). 2014
  • Plasmon spectroscopy of small indium-silver clusters: monitoring the indium shell oxidation. Cottancin E, Langlois C, Lermé J, Broyer M, Lebeault MA, Pellarin M. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2014
  • Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction. He Y, Ma E, Xu Z. J Hazard Mater. 2014
  • Unmasked Acyl Anion Equivalent from Acid Chloride with Indium: Reversed-Polarity Synthesis of Unsymmetric Aryl Aryl and Alkenyl Aryl Ketone through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reaction. Lee D, Ryu T, Park Y, Lee PH. Org Lett. 2014
  • Ga-doped indium oxide nanowire phase change random access memory cells. Jin B, Lim T, Ju S, Latypov MI, Kim HS, Meyyappan M, Lee JS. Nanotechnology. 2014.
  • Indium Chloride Catalyzed Alkylative Rearrangement of Propargylic Acetates Using Alkyl Chlorides, Alcohols, and Acetates: Facile Synthesis of α-Alkyl-α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds. Onishi Y, Nishimoto Y, Yasuda M, Baba A. Org Lett. 2014
  • Ultrafast Modulation of the Plasma Frequency of Vertically Aligned Indium Tin Oxide Rods. Tice DB, Li SQ, Tagliazucchi M, Buchholz DB, Weiss EA, Chang RP. Nano Lett. 2014
  • Huge photoresistance in transparent and conductive indium titanium oxide films prepared by electron beam-physical vapor deposition. Martínez-Morillas R, Ramírez R, Sánchez-Marcos J, Fonda E, de Andrés A, Prieto C. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014
  • Indium-bridged [1]ferrocenophanes. Bagh B, Sadeh S, Green JC, Müller J. Chemistry. 2014
  • Scalable Integration of Indium Zinc Oxide/Photosensitive-Nanowire Composite Thin-Film Transistors for Transparent Multicolor Photodetectors Array. Liu X, Jiang L, Zou X, Xiao X, Guo S, Jiang C, Liu X, Fan Z, Hu W, Chen X, Lu W, Hu W, Liao L. Adv Mater. 2014
  • Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium zinc oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates. Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L, Wan Q. Nanotechnology. 2014.
  • Application of ZnO/graphene and S6 aptamers for sensitive photoelectrochemical detection of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells based on a disposable indium tin oxide device. Biosens Bioelectron. 2014 | first author:Liu F
  • Fabrication of a highly sensitive disposable immunosensor based on indium tin oxide substrates for cancer biomarker detection. Canbaz MÇ, Sezgintürk MK. Anal Biochem. 2014 Feb.
  • Colloidally stable selenium@copper selenide core@shell nanoparticles as selenium source for manufacturing of copper-indium-selenide solar cells. Dong H, Quintilla A, Cemernjak M, Popescu R, Gerthsen D, Ahlswede E, Feldmann C. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 Feb.
  • Effective indium-doped zinc oxide buffer layer on silver nanowires for electrically highly stable, flexible, transparent, and conductive composite electrodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 | first author:Lee HJ
  • Electrochemically driven biocatalysis of the oxygenase domain of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in indium tin oxide nanoparticles/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite. Bioelectrochemistry. 2013 create date:2013/06/04 | first author:Xu X
  • Tuning indium tin oxide work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells. Nanotechnology. 2013 | first author:Chen F
  • Use of and occupational exposure to indium in the United States. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2013 | first author:Hines CJ
  • High-Performance Low-Cost Back-Channel-Etch Amorphous Gallium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors by Curing and Passivation of the Damaged Back Channel. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2013 create date:2013/11/14 | first author:Park JC
  • Structural properties of the inner coordination sphere of indium chloride complexes in organic and aqueous solutions. Dalton Trans. 2013 | first author:Narita H
  • Fabrication of Highly Transparent and Conductive Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films with a High Figure of Merit via Solution Processing. Langmuir. 2013 | first author:Chen Z

Indium Isotopes


Indium has two naturally occuring isotopes: 113In and 115In. The stable isotope, 113In, accounts for only 4.3% of naturally occurring indium. 115In has a half life of 441 trillion years and accounts for 95.7% of naturally occurring indium.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
113In 112.904058 Stable 9/2+
115In 114.903878 4.41(25)×1014 a 1/2+