Indium (In) Elemental Symbol
Indium



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Indium Indium Indio Índio Indio Indium

Indium(In) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbol Indium is a Block P, Group 13, Period 5 element. Indium Bohr ModelThe number of electrons in each of Indium's shells is 2, 8, 18, 18, 3 and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1. In its elemental form, CAS 7440-74-6, Indium has a silvery lustrous gray appearance. The indium atom has a radius of 162.6.pm and its Van der Waals radius is 193.pm. Indium has found application in semi-conductor materials and other electronic applications. It is used in making bearing alloys, germanium transistors, rectifiers, and photoconductors. Elemental IndiumIndium is used to make low-melting alloys, such as an alloy of 24% indium - 76% Indium is liquid at room temperature. Indium can be plated onto metal and evaporated onto glass, forming a mirror as good as that made with silver but with more resistance to atmospheric corrosion. Indium information, including technical data, safety data, high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are discussed below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on earth, conductivity and thermal properties are also included.

High Purity (99.999%) Indium Oxide (In2O3) PowderIndium is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.9999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity); metals in the form of foil, sputtering target, and rod, and compounds as submicron and nanopowder. High Purity (99.99999%) Indium (In) Sputtering TargetIndium is also used in various metal alloys (See AE Alloys). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nanoparticles and nanopowders provide ultra-high surface area which nanotechnology research and recent experiments demonstrate function to create new and unique properties and benefits. Oxides are available in forms including powders and dense pellets for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Indium is available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds are also manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Indium is only slightly toxic. Safety data for Indium metal, nanoparticles and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific indium material or compound referenced in the “Indium Products” tab below.


  • Properties
  • Safety Data
  • Products
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Indium Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: In Melting Point: 429.7485 K, 156.5985 °C, 313.8773 °F
Atomic Number: 49 Boiling Point: 2345 K, 2072 °C, 3762 °F
Atomic Weight: 114.82 g.mol -1 Density: 7.31 g.cm-3 at 20 °C
Element Category: post-transition metal Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.02 g·cm−3
Group, Period, Block: 13, 5, p Specific Heat: 234 @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 )
  Heat of Vaporization 231.8 kJ mol-1
Heat of Fusion 3.27 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Atomization 243.72 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 49 Thermal Conductivity: 81.8 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 49 Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 32.1 µm·m−1·K−1
Neutrons: 64 Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 83.7 nΩ·m
Electron Configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1 2, 8, 18, 18, 3 Electronegativity: 1.78 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: 167 pm Tensile Strength: 7.99 tons/in.2
Covalent Radius: 142±5 pm Molar Heat Capacity: 26.74 J·mol−1·K−1
Van der Waals radius: 193.pm Young's Modulus: 11 GPa
Oxidation States: 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide) Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: <10
Crystal Structure: tetragonal Poisson Ratio: 0.4498
Magnetic Ordering: diamagnetic Mohs Hardness: 1.2
1st Ionization Energy: 558.30 kJ mol-1 Vickers Hardness: <10
2nd Ionization Energy: 1820.67 kJ mol-1 Brinell Hardness: 8.83 MPa
3rd Ionization Energy: 2704.50 kJ mol-1 Speed of Sound: (20 °C) 1215 m·s−1
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-74-6 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4514408 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5359967 Abundance in universe, by weight: 0.3 ppb
MDL Number: MFCD00134048 Abundance in universe, by atom: 0.003
EC Number: 231-180-0 Discovered By: Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1863
SMILES Identifier: [In]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/In Other Names: N/A
InChI Key: APFVFJFRJDLVQX-
UHFFFAOYSA-N
 
       
       
       
       
       

Indium Products


Metal Forms  •  Compounds  •  Alloys  •  Oxide Forms  •  Organometallic Compounds
Sputtering Targets  •  Nanomaterials  •  Semiconductor Materials •  Isotopes

Metal Forms

Indium Balls
Indium Bands
Indium Bars
Indium Bismuth
Indium Bits
Indium Board
Indium Briquette
Indium (By Crystallization)
Indium Capsules
Indium Circle
Indium Chunk
Indium Coil
Indium Coins
Indium Concentrate
Indium Cylinder
Indium Disc
Indium Dust
Indium Flanges
Indium Foil
Indium Fragments
Indium Grain
Indium Granules
Indium Honeycomb
Indium Ingot
Indium Lump
Indium Mesh
Indium Metal
Indium Nugget
Indium Particles
Indium Parts
Indium Pebbles
Indium Pellets
Indium Pieces
Indium Pills
Indium Plates
Indium Powder
Indium Precipitate
Indium Puck
Indium Residue
Indium Ribbon
Indium Rings
Indium Rocks
Indium Rod
Indium Samples
Indium Scraps
Indium Segments
Indium Shaving
Indium Sheets
Indium Shot
Indium Sleeves
Indium Slugs
Indium Specimens
Indium Spheres
Indium Spring
Indium Strip
Indium Tape
Indium Tube
Indium Wafer
Indium Wire
Ultra Thin Indium Foil


Sputtering Targets

Copper Indium Sputtering Target
Copper-Indium-Gallium Sputtering Target
CIGSS Sputtering Target
CIS Sputtering Target
IGZO Sputtering Target
Indium Antimonide Sputtering Target
Indium Arsenide Sputtering Target
Indium Fluoride Sputtering Target
Indium Moly Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Phosphide Sputtering Target
Indium Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Selenide Sputtering Target
Indium(II) Selenide Sputtering Target
Indium Sputtering Target
Indium Sulfide Sputtering Target
Indium Telluride Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Sputtering Target
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Sputtering Target
Indium Zinc Sputtering Target
Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO) Sputtering Target
Magnesium Indium Sputtering Target


Isotopes

Indium-113 Isotope
Indium-113 Oxide Isotope


 
Crystal/Semiconductor Materials

Cadmium Indium Telluride Granules
Cadmium Indium Telluride Powder
Cadmium Indium Telluride Lump
CIGS Nanoparticles
CIGS Powder
CIGS Single Crystal
CIGS Sputtering Target
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)
CIGS Particles
CIGSS Powder
CIS Particles
CIS Powder
CIS Single Crystal
CIGS Granule
CIGS Lump
CIGS Powder
CIGSS Granule
CIGSS Powder
CIGSS Lump
Gallium Indium Antimonide
Gallium Indium Arsenide
Gallium Indium Eutectic
InAlAs
InAlGaP
InAlP
Indium Aluminum Arsenide Granule
Indium Aluminum Arsenide Lump
Indium Aluminum Arsenide Powder
InAsSb
Indium Antimonide
Indium Arsenide
Indium Arsenide Wafer
Indium Gallium Arsenide Granules
Indium Gallium Arsenide Lump
Indium Gallium Arsenide Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Granules
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Powder
Indium Gallium Phosphorus Arsenide Lump
Indium Gallium Nitride
Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide (IGZO)
Indium Nitride
Indium Oxide Coated PET
Indium Phosphide
Indium Phosphide Arsenide
Indium Phosphide Wafer
Indium Selenide Crystal
Indium(II) Selenide InSe
Indium(III) Selenide In2Se3
Indium Telluride
Indium Tin Oxide Coated Glass Slide
Indium Tin Oxide Coated PET
InGaAlAs
InGaAsP
InGaP
InPb
Mercury Indium Selenide Granule
Mercury Indium Selenide Powder
Mercury Indium Selenide Lump
Silver Indium Sulfide Granule
Silver Indium Sulfide Lump
Silver Indium Sulfide Powder
Silver Indium Telluride Granules
Silver Indium Telluride Powder
Silver Indium Telluride Lump
Zinc Indium Telluride Granules
Zinc Indium Telluride Lump
Zinc Indium Telluride Powder


Indium Oxide Forms

Copper Oxide/Indium Oxide Granules
Indium-113 Oxide Isotope
Indium Oxide Granules
Indium Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Oxide Particles
Indium Oxide Pellets
Indium Oxide Pieces
Indium Oxide Powder
Indium Oxide Rotatable Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Shot
Indium Oxide Sputtering Target
Indium Oxide Tablets
Indium Tin Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Zinc Oxide


Nanomaterials

CIS Nanoparticles
Indium Hydroxide Nanoparticles
Indium Oxide Nanopowder
Indium Nanoparticles
Indium Nanorods
Indium Phosphorous Nanoparticles
Indium Tin Oxide Nanopowder
InP/ZnS Quantum Dots
ZnCuInS/ZnS Quantum Dots



Alloys

Bismuth Indium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Indium Lead Tin Alloy
Bismuth Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Cadmium Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Alloy
Bismuth Lead Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Cadmium Indium Alloy
Bismuth Lead Tin Indium Alloy
Bismuth Tin Indium Lead Alloy
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Gold Indium Alloy
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Particles
Gold Platinum Palladium Silver Indium Alloy Powder
Indium Bismuth Alloy
Indium Bismuth Cadmium Alloy
Indium Bismuth Tin Alloy
Indium Cadmium Alloy
Indium Lead Alloy
Indium Lead Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Alloy
Indium Silver Rod
Indium Tin Alloy
Indium Tin Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Lead Alloy
Indium Silver Foil Indium Tin Foil
Indium Tin Lead Cadmium Alloy
Indium Tin Metal
Lead Indium Alloy
Lead Indium Antimony Alloy
Lead Indium Silver Alloy
Lead Tin Silver Indium Alloy
Silver Copper Indium Alloy
Tin Lead Indium Alloy
Tin Indium Alloy


Compounds

Indium Acetate
Indium Acetate Solution
Indium Bromide
Indium Bromide, Ultra Dry
Indium Carbonate
Indium Chloride
Indium(II) Chloride
Indium(III) Chloride Hydrate
Indium Chloride, Ultra Dry
Indium Chloride Solution
Indium(III) Chloride Tetrahydrate
Indium(I) Chloride Anhydrous
Indium Fluoride
Indium(III) Fluoride Trihydrate
Indigane (Indium Hydride)
Indium Hydroxide
Indium(I) Iodide InI
Indium(I) Iodide, Ultra Dry
Indium(III) Iodide InI3
Indium Nitrate
Indium(III) Nitrate Hydrate
Indium Nitrate Solution
Indium Nitride
Indium Oxide
Indium Oxide/Tin Oxide
Indium(III) Perchlorate Hydrate
Indium Phosphate
Indium Sulfamate
Indium Sulfate
Indium Sulfate Solution
Indium(III) Sulfate Hydrate
Indium Sulfide
Indium(II) Sulfide
Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)
Indium Tin Oxide Pieces


Organometallic Compounds

Indium 2-Ethylhexanoate
Indium(III) Isopropoxide Solution
Indium Acetylacetonate
Indium(III) Acetylacetonate
Indium Hexafluoropentanedionate
Indium Methoxyethoxide
Indium Methyl (trimethylacetyl)acetate
Indium(III) Phthalocyanine Chloride
Indium(III) tert-butoxide Solution
Indium Triflate
Indium(III) Trifluoromethanesulfonate
Trimethylindium


Recent Research & Development for Indium

  • Ho Young Chung, Kie Young Woo, Su Jin Kim, Tae Geun Kim, Improvement of blue InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with graded indium composition wells and barriers, Optics Communications, Volume 331, 15 November 2014
  • Raju Chetty, D.S. Prem Kumar, M. Falmbigl, P. Rogl, S.-W. You, Il-Ho Kim, Ramesh Chandra Mallik, Thermoelectric properties of Indium doped Cu2GeSe3, Intermetallics, Volume 54, November 2014
  • Xingwei Ding, Jianhua Zhang, Weimin Shi, Hao Zhang, Chuanxin Huang, Jun Li, Xueyin Jiang, Zhilin Zhang, Characterization of density-of-states in indium zinc oxide thin-film transistor from temperature stress studies, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 27, November 2014
  • Atasheh Soleimani-Gorgani, Ehsan Bakhshandeh, Farhood Najafi, Effect of dispersant agents on morphology and optical–electrical properties of nano indium tin oxide ink-jet ink, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 12, October 2014
  • Shihyun Ahn, Anh Huy Tuan Le, Sunbo Kim, Cheolmin Park, Chonghoon Shin, Youn-Jung Lee, Jaehyeong Lee, Chaehwan Jeong, Vinh Ai Dao, Junsin Yi, The effects of orientation changes in indium tin oxide films on performance of crystalline silicon solar cell with shallow-emitter, Materials Letters, Volume 132, 1 October 2014
  • L. Castañeda, A. Maldonado, J. Vega Pérez, M. de la L. Olvera, C. Torres-Torres, Electrical and optical properties of nanostructured indium doped zinc oxide thin films deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray technique, starting from zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Zhou Xu, Peng Chen, Zhenlong Wu, Feng Xu, Guofeng Yang, Bin Liu, Chongbin Tan, Lin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng, Influence of thermal annealing on electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 26, October 2014
  • Anil Singh, Sujeet Chaudhary, Dinesh K. Pandya, On the temperature dependence of mobility in hydrogenated indium-doped ZnO thin films, Acta Materialia, Volume 77, 15 September 2014
  • G. Mohan Kumar, Jinsub Park, Structural and optical property studies on indium doped ZnO nanostructures for solution based organic–inorganic hybrid p–n junctions, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Volume 430, 15 September 2014
  • Ummar Pasha Shaik, M. Ghanashyam Krishna, Single step formation of indium and tin doped ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of indium–zinc and tin–zinc metal films: Growth and optical properties, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
  • J.J. Ortega, M.A. Aguilar-Frutis, G. Alarcón, C. Falcony, V.H. Méndez-García, J.J. Araiza, Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 187, September 2014
  • Wyatt H. Strong, David V. Forbes, Seth M. Hubbard, Investigation of deep level defects in electron irradiated indium arsenide quantum dots embedded in a gallium arsenide matrix, Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, Volume 25, September 2014
  • Ali A. Orouji, Mohammad Nejaty, Alireza Mohtasham, Novel Indium Arsenide double gate and gate all around nanowire MOSFETs for diminishing the exchange correlation effect: A quantum study, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Volume 63, September 2014
  • Bobins Augustine, Rafal Sliz, Kimmo Lahtonen, Mika Valden, Risto Myllylä, Tapio Fabritius, Effect of plasma treated Ag/indium tin oxide anode modification on stability of polymer solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 128, September 2014
  • N.B. Pawar, S.D. Kharade, S.S. Mali, R.M. Mane, C.K. Hong, P.S. Patil, P.N. Bhosale, Effect of indium (III) content on photoelectrochemical performance of MoBi(2-x)InxS5 thin films, Solid State Sciences, Volume 35, September 2014
  • Ying-Feng Lan, Ying-Hung Chen, Ju-Liang He, Jing-Tang Chang, Microstructural characterization of high-quality indium tin oxide films deposited by thermionically enhanced magnetron sputtering at low temperature, Vacuum, Volume 107, September 2014
  • Siti Zulaikha Ngah Demon, Yoshihiro Miyauchi, Goro Mizutani, Toshinori Matsushima, Hideyuki Murata, Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide, Applied Surface Science, Volume 311, 30 August 2014
  • Udo Steiner, Phase relations and chemical vapor transport of hexagonal indium tungsten bronze InxWO3, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 605, 25 August 2014
  • Erkan Aydin, Mehmet Sankir, Nurdan Demirci Sankir, Influence of silver incorporation on the structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide thin films, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 603, 5 August 2014
  • P.D. Szkutnik, H. Roussel, V. Lahootun, X. Mescot, F. Weiss, C. Jiménez, Study of the functional properties of ITO grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from different indium and tin precursors, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 603, 5 August 2014

Indium Isotopes


Indium has two naturally occuring isotopes: 113In and 115In. The stable isotope, 113In, accounts for only 4.3% of naturally occurring indium. 115In has a half life of 441 trillion years and accounts for 95.7% of naturally occurring indium.

Nuclide Symbol Isotopic Mass Half-Life Nuclear Spin
113In 112.904058 Stable 9/2+
115In 114.903878 4.41(25)×1014 a 1/2+