Astatine Elemental Symbol
Astatine



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Astate Astat Astato Astato Astato Astat

Astatine Bohr ModelAstatine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Astatine's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5. The Astatine atom has a covalent radius of 150.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 202.pm. In its elemental form, Astatine's CAS number is 7440-68-8 and its appearance is unknown. Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring non-transuranic element. The amount of naturally occurring astatine in the world is about 25g. Astatine was discovered by Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè in 1940.

Astatine is highly radioactive. Astatine information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Astatine Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: At Melting Point: 575 K, 302 °C, 576 °F
Atomic Number: 85 Boiling Point: 610 K, 337 °C, 639 °F
Atomic Weight: 210 Density: 6.2–6.5 g·cm−3 (predicted)
Element Category: halogen Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 17 (halogens), 6, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 585.22 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 23.81 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 85 Thermal Conductivity: 1.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 85 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 125 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f145d106p5  Electronegativity: 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 150 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 202 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 7, 5, 3, 1, -1 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: N/A Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: N/A Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 887.7±38.59 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-68-8 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4573995 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5460479 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1940
SMILES Identifier: [At]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/At Other Names: Astat, Astato
InChI Key: RYXHOMYVWAEKHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Astatine

  • C. Fry, M. Thoennessen, Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, Volume 99, Issue 5, September 2013
  • Susanta Lahiri, Kamalika Roy, Souvik Sen, Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: A candidate radiopharmaceutical, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 66, Issue 12, December 2008
  • Kamalika Roy, Susanta Lahiri, Production and separation of Astatine Radionuclides: Some new addition to Astatine Chemistry, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 66, Issue 5, May 2008
  • Stig Palm, Tom Bäck, Ingela Claesson, Anna Danielsson, Jörgen Elgqvist, Sofia Frost, Ragnar Hultborn, Holger Jensen, Sture Lindegren, Lars Jacobsson, Therapeutic Efficacy of Astatine-211–Labeled Trastuzumab on Radioresistant SKOV-3 Tumors in Nude Mice, International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 69, Issue 2, 1 October 2007
  • A. Boskovitz, H. Ochiai, T. Okamura, X.-G. Zhao, D. Bigner, M. Zalutsky, 296 Trastuzumab monoclonal antibody labeled with alpha-particle emitter astatine: targeted radiotherapeutic experiments on a HER2-positive breast carcinomatous meningitis animal model after intrathecal administration, European Journal of Cancer Supplements, Volume 2, Issue 8, September 2004
  • Kamalika Roy, S. Basu, A. Ramaswami, Dalia Nayak, Susanta Lahiri, Incorporation of thiosemicarbazide in Amberlite IRC-50 for separation of astatine from a-irradiated bismuth oxide, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 60, Issue 6, June 2004
  • Turan Ünak, Some microdosmetric data on Astatine-211, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 58, Issue 1, January 2003
  • Sture Lindegren, Tom Bäck, Holger J. Jensen, Dry-distillation of astatine-211 from irradiated bismuth targets: a time-saving procedure with high recovery yields, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 55, Issue 2, August 2001
  • , Project title astatine and iodine radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, Academic Radiology, Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2000
  • Craig J Reist, Catherine F Foulon, Kevin Alston, Darell D Bigner, Michael R Zalutsky, Astatine-211 labeling of internalizing anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody using N-succinimidyl 5-[211At]astato-3-pyridinecarboxylate, Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 26, Issue 4, May 1999
  • Catherine F Foulon, Kevin L Alston, Michael R Zalutsky, Astatine-211-Labeled Biotin Conjugates Resistant to Biotinidase for Use in Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 25, Issue 2, February 1998
  • Michael R. Zalutsky, Michael G. Stabin, Roy H. Larsen, Darell D. Bigner, Tissue distribution and radiation dosimetry of astatine-211-labeled chimeric 81C6, an a-particle-emitting immunoconjugate, Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 24, Issue 3, April 1997
  • Catherine F. Foulon, Bent W. Schoultz, Michael R. Zalutsky, Preparation and biological evaluation of an astatine-211 labeled biotin conjugate: Biotinyl-3-[211At]astatoanilide, Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 24, Issue 2, February 1997
  • Ignace Vergote, Roy H. Larsen, Laure De Vos, Mette Winderen, Turid Ellingsen, Jon Bjørgum, Per Hoff, Magne Aas, Claes Tropé, Kjell Nustad, Distribution of intraperitoneally injected microspheres labeled with the a-emitter astatine (211At) compared with phosphorus (32P) and yttrium (90Y) colloids in mice, Gynecologic Oncology, Volume 47, Issue 3, December 1992
  • R. Ludwig, S. Fischer, R. Dreyer, R. Jacobi, J. Beger, Complex formation equilibria between astatine(I) and sulphur-containing chelating ligands, Polyhedron, Volume 10, Issue 1, 1991
  • L.M. Cobb, A. Harrison, N.E. Dudley, T.E.F. Carr, J.A. Humphreys, Relative concentration of astatine-211 and iodine-125 by human fetal thyroid and carcinoma of the thyroid in nude mice, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Volume 13, Issue 3, November 1988
  • Saed Mirzadeh, Richard M. Lambrecht, Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use, Environment International, Volume 14, Issue 1, 1988
  • Saed Mirzadeh, Richard M Lambrecht, Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use, International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part B. Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Volume 15, Issue 2, 1988
  • J.L. Humm, A microdosimetric model of astatine-211 labeled antibodies for radioimmunotherapy, International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics, Volume 13, Issue 11, November 1987
  • I. Brown, Astatine-211: Its possible applications in cancer therapy, International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part A. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Volume 37, Issue 8, 1986

Astatine Isotopes


Astatine (At) has no stable isotopes. All of its 37 known isotopes, ranging from 191At to 229At, are radioactive.