Astatine Elemental Symbol
Astatine



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Astate Astat Astato Astato Astato Astat

Astatine Bohr ModelAstatine is a Block P, Group 17, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of Astatine's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5. The Astatine atom has a covalent radius of 150.pm and it's Van der Waals radius is 202.pm. In its elemental form, Astatine's CAS number is 7440-68-8 and its appearance is unknown. Astatine is the rarest naturally occurring non-transuranic element. The amount of naturally occurring astatine in the world is about 25g. Astatine was discovered by Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè in 1940.

Astatine is highly radioactive. Astatine information, including technical data, safety data and its high purity properties, research, applications and other useful facts are specified below. Scientific facts such as the atomic structure, ionization energy, abundance on Earth, conductivity and thermal properties are included.


  • Properties
  • Research
  • Isotopes
  • Other Elements

Astatine Properties


GENERAL PROPERTIES   PHYSICAL PROPERTIES  
Symbol: At Melting Point: 575 K, 302 °C, 576 °F
Atomic Number: 85 Boiling Point: 610 K, 337 °C, 639 °F
Atomic Weight: 210 Density: 6.2–6.5 g·cm−3 (predicted)
Element Category: halogen Liquid Density @ Melting Point: N/A
Group, Period, Block: 17 (halogens), 6, p Specific Heat: N/A
    Heat of Vaporization 585.22 kJ mol-1
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE Heat of Fusion 23.81 kJ mol-1
Electrons: 85 Thermal Conductivity: 1.7 W·m−1·K−1
Protons: 85 Thermal Expansion: N/A
Neutrons: 125 Electrical Resistivity: N/A
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f145d106p5  Electronegativity: 2.2 (Pauling scale)
Atomic Radius: N/A Tensile Strength: N/A
Covalent Radius: 150 pm Molar Heat Capacity: N/A
Van der Waals radius: 202 pm Young's Modulus: N/A
Oxidation States: 7, 5, 3, 1, -1 Shear Modulus: N/A
Phase: Solid Bulk Modulus: N/A
Crystal Structure: N/A Poisson Ratio: N/A
Magnetic Ordering: N/A Mohs Hardness: N/A
1st Ionization Energy: 887.7±38.59 kJ·mol−1 Vickers Hardness: N/A
2nd Ionization Energy: N/A Brinell Hardness: N/A
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A Speed of Sound: N/A
       
IDENTIFIERS   MISCELLANEOUS  
CAS Number: 7440-68-8 Abundance in typical human body, by weight: N/A
ChemSpider ID: 4573995 Abundance in typical human body, by atom: N/A
PubChem CID: 5460479 Abundance in universe, by weight: N/A
MDL Number: N/A Abundance in universe, by atom: N/A
EC Number: N/A Discovered By: Dale R. Corson, Kenneth Ross MacKenzie, Emilio Segrè
Beilstein Number: N/A Discovery Date: 1940
SMILES Identifier: [At]  
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/At Other Names: Astat, Astato
InChI Key: RYXHOMYVWAEKHL-UHFFFAOYSA-N  
       
       
       
       
       


Recent Research & Development for Astatine

  • Measurement of the first ionization potential of astatine by laser ionization spectroscopy. Rothe S, Andreyev AN, Antalic S, Borschevsky A, Capponi L, Cocolios TE, De Witte H, Eliav E, Fedorov DV, Fedosseev VN, Fink DA, Fritzsche S, Ghys L, Huyse M, Imai N, Kaldor U, Kudryavtsev Y, Köster U, Lane JF, Lassen J, Liberati V, Lynch KM, Marsh BA, Nishio K, Pauwels D, Pershina V, Popescu L, Procter TJ, Radulov D, Raeder S, Rajabali MM, Rapisarda E, Rossel RE, Sandhu K, Seliverstov MD, Sjödin AM, Van den Bergh P, Van Duppen P, Venhart M, Wakabayashi Y, Wendt KD. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1835. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2819.
  • Enigmatic astatine. Wilbur DS. Nat Chem. 2013 Mar;5(3):246. doi: 10.1038/nchem.1580. No abstract available.
  • Investigation of astatine(III) hydrolyzed species: experiments and relativistic calculations. Champion J, Sabatié-Gogova A, Bassal F, Ayed T, Alliot C, Galland N, Montavon G. J Phys Chem A. 2013 Mar 7;117(9):1983-90. doi: 10.1021/jp3099413. Epub 2013 Feb 20.
  • Transcriptional response of BALB/c mouse thyroids following in vivo astatine-211 exposure reveals distinct gene expression profiles. Rudqvist N, Parris TZ, Schüler E, Helou K, Forssell-Aronsson E. EJNMMI Res. 2012 Jun 14;2(1):32. doi: 10.1186/2191-219X-2-32.
  • Astatine-211: production and availability. Zalutsky MR, Pruszynski M. Curr Radiopharm. 2011 Jul;4(3):177-85. Review.
  • Durable donor engraftment after radioimmunotherapy using a-emitter astatine-211-labeled anti-CD45 antibody for conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Chen Y, Kornblit B, Hamlin DK, Sale GE, Santos EB, Wilbur DS, Storer BE, Storb R, Sandmaier BM. Blood. 2012 Feb 2;119(5):1130-8. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-09-380436. Epub 2011 Dec 1.
  • Assessment of an effective quasirelativistic methodology designed to study astatine chemistry in aqueous solution. Champion J, Seydou M, Sabatié-Gogova A, Renault E, Montavon G, Galland N. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2011 Sep 7;13(33):14984-92. doi: 10.1039/c1cp20512a. Epub 2011 Jul 18.
  • Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine. Chang Z, Li J, Dong C. J Phys Chem A. 2010 Dec 30;114(51):13388-94. doi: 10.1021/jp107411s. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
  • Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium. Champion J, Alliot C, Renault E, Mokili BM, Chérel M, Galland N, Montavon G. J Phys Chem A. 2010 Jan 14;114(1):576-82. doi: 10.1021/jp9077008.
  • Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 4. Comparison of maleimido-closo-decaborate(2-) and meta-[(211)At]astatobenzoate conjugates for labeling anti-CD45 antibodies with [(211)At]astatine. Wilbur DS, Thakar MS, Hamlin DK, Santos EB, Chyan MK, Nakamae H, Pagel JM, Press OW, Sandmaier BM. Bioconjug Chem. 2009 Oct 21;20(10):1983-91. doi: 10.1021/bc9000799. Epub 2009 Sep 4.
  • Biodistributions, myelosuppression, and toxicities in mice treated with an anti-CD45 antibody labeled with the alpha-emitting radionuclides bismuth-213 or astatine-211. Nakamae H, Wilbur DS, Hamlin DK, Thakar MS, Santos EB, Fisher DR, Kenoyer AL, Pagel JM, Press OW, Storb R, Sandmaier BM. Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15;69(6):2408-15. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4363. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
  • Reagents for astatination of biomolecules. 3. Comparison of closo-decaborate(2-) and closo-dodecaborate(2-) moieties as reactive groups for labeling with astatine-211. Wilbur DS, Chyan MK, Hamlin DK, Perry MA. Bioconjug Chem. 2009 Mar 18;20(3):591-602. doi: 10.1021/bc800515d.
  • Astatine Radiopharmaceuticals: Prospects and Problems. Vaidyanathan G, Zalutsky MR. Curr Radiopharm. 2008 Sep 1;1(3):177.
  • Complexation study on no-carrier-added astatine with insulin: a candidate radiopharmaceutical. Lahiri S, Roy K, Sen S. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008 Dec;66(12):1901-4. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2008.06.024. Epub 2008 Jun 26.
  • Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy with astatine-211 and bismuth-213. Lucignani G. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Sep;35(9):1729-33. doi: 10.1007/s00259-008-0856-4. No abstract available.
  • Preparation of Rh[16aneS4-diol](211)At and Ir[16aneS4-diol](211)At complexes as potential precursors for astatine radiopharmaceuticals. Part I: Synthesis. Pruszynski M, Bilewicz A, Zalutsky MR. Bioconjug Chem. 2008 Apr;19(4):958-65. doi: 10.1021/bc700413r. Epub 2008 Mar 14.
  • Effective treatment of established human breast tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice with a single dose of the alpha-emitting radioisotope astatine-211 conjugated to anti-HER2/neu diabodies. Robinson MK, Shaller C, Garmestani K, Plascjak PS, Hodge KM, Yuan QA, Marks JD, Waldmann TA, Brechbiel MW, Adams GP. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 1;14(3):875-82. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1250.
  • Production and separation of Astatine Radionuclides: some new addition to Astatine Chemistry. Roy K, Lahiri S. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008 May;66(5):571-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2007.12.005. Epub 2007 Dec 23.
  • Therapeutic efficacy of astatine-211-labeled trastuzumab on radioresistant SKOV-3 tumors in nude mice. Palm S, Bäck T, Claesson I, Danielsson A, Elgqvist J, Frost S, Hultborn R, Jensen H, Lindegren S, Jacobsson L. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007 Oct 1;69(2):572-9.
  • Radioimmunotherapy with astatine-211 using chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cheng J, Ekberg T, Engström M, Nestor M, Jensen HJ, Tolmachev V, Anniko M. Laryngoscope. 2007 Jun;117(6):1013-8.

Astatine Isotopes


Astatine (At) has no stable isotopes. All of its 37 known isotopes, ranging from 191At to 229At, are radioactive.