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About Platinum

Platinum Bohr Model

Pre-columbian natives of the Americas have produced items made from gold-platinum alloys for 2,000 years, but Spanish explorers first brought platinum to Europe in the 18th century in the form they called platina, the native form of the metal found in South America. The name was derived from plata, the Spanish word for silver metal, and was eventually used in the official name of the element. Antonio de Ulloa is credited with the discovery of platina in 1735, but was primarily an explorer and had little to do with investigation of the metal after submitting a report that included descriptions of the metal in 1746. Instead, a range of chemists across Europe experimented with the newly discovered metal.

18th century chemists recognized the potential value of the hard and corrosion-resistant metal but struggled to produce malleable platinum from the ore. In 1751, Swedish scientist Henrik Scheffer discovered that grains of the platinum ore could be fused into malleable platinum by heating them in the presence of arsenic, and subsequent refinement of this process enabled the production of the first European products made from the metal. Over the next fifty years, a variety of processes were developed to produce malleable platinum metal from ore, but all of them suffered from some inconsistencies in the final material produced and required laborious or costly steps, limiting the production of the metal. During this period, platinum was used primarily for the production of ornamental pieces and laboratory ware.

In 1802, English chemists Smithson Tennant and William Hyde Wollaston worked together to come up with a more efficient way to produce workable platinum. In the process, they discovered what had been hindering platinum purification all along: platinum ore actually contained trace amounts of several other elements previously unknown to science, and varying amounts of contamination with these elements remaining after extraction of the metal from the ore led to variations in the properties of the “platinum” produced. This new understanding facilitated the development of more reliable and efficient methods for processing platinum ore, which was followed by a boom in availability and use of the metal.

In 1817, Humphry Davy, a chemist who was interested in producing a lamp that could be safely used in coal mines, stumbled upon the phenomenon of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation: the coal gas he tested would burn without a flame and at a lower than usual temperature only when it came in contact with platinum or palladium metal wire. Having solved his problem, Davy then moved on to other pursuits, but other chemists were fascinated, and soon many reactions where platinum could serve as a catalyst were discovered. By the beginning of the 20th century, platinum catalysts were widely used in the industrial production of sulfuric and nitric acid.

Today, platinum catalysts are essential for catalytic converters, which reduce toxic emissions by automobiles, for petroleum processing, and for a wide range of organic synthesis applications. The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Gerhard Ertl for the research on catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide, the chemistry that underlies the function of catalytic converters. Additionally, two other Chemistry Nobel Prize winners investigated platinum catalysts in their research, though each was ultimately awarded the prize for processes that used other metals as catalysts. Paul Sabatier’s award in 1912 recognized him for his work on hydrogenation reactions for which he ultimately found nickel metal to be more effective than platinum. The first successful production of ammonia from gaseous nitrogen was performed in 1881 using a platinum catalyst, and Fritz Haber’s research into improving this process ultimately resulted in the Haber process for which he won the 1918 Nobel Prize. Haber’s final process as used in industry used iron-based catalysts rather than platinum group metals, but his research would not have been possible without prior work using platinum.

While researchers investigated the chemical properties of platinum in the 19th century, the metal was also growing in popularity for use in jewelry manufacturing. Platinum is in some ways a better metal for jewelry than either silver or gold, as it is harder than either and does not tarnish like silver. Once several prominent jewelers started using the metal in the late 1800’s, platinum rose rapidly in popularity, becoming particularly fashionable for the setting of colorless stones. This continued until 1940, when platinum use was restricted to industrial production of chemicals needed in the war effort. Platinum was replaced by white gold due to these restrictions, but has returned to popularity in recent years.

Platinum and platinum alloys are used in a wide range of settings where chemical inertness or wear resistance are important, including medical devices, laboratory instruments, electrical contacts, spark plugs, and turbine engines. A platinum-iridium alloy was also used to produce the international prototype kilogram and meter in the late 19th century; of the two only the kilogram remains in official use. Finally, organometallic platinum complexes have been investigated for use in cancer treatment.

Like other platinum group metals, platinum is most often obtained for commercial use as a byproduct from nickel and copper mining and processing, but can also be obtained from rare platinum-rich ores and alluvial deposits of native platinum.


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Platinum is used in laboratory and dentistry equipment, jewelry, electrical contacts and electrodes, and catalytic converters. It is highly corrosion resistant- the metal does not oxidize in air at any temperature. Organoplatinum compounds have been used as pharmaceutical treatments for certain cancers. High Purity (99.999%) Platinum Oxide (PtO2) PowderPlatinum is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). High Purity (99.999%) Platinum (Pt) Sputtering TargetElemental or metallic forms include platinum pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Platinum nanoparticles and nanopowders are also available. Platinum oxide is available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Platinum fluoride is another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Platinum is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Platinum Properties

Platinum(Pt) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolPlatinum is a Block D, Group 10, Period 6 element. The number of electrons in each of platinum's shells is 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1 and its electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. The platinum atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is Platinum Bohr ModelElemental PlatinumIn its elemental form, CAS 7440-06-4, platinum has a grayish white appearance. Platinum is a member of the platinum group of metals and the group 10 of the periodic table. It is generally non-reactive, even at high temperatures. It is one of the rarest elements in the earth's crust, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm. Platinum is found uncombined as native platinum and alloyed with iridium as platiniridium. Platinum was first discovered and isolated by Antonio de Ulloa in 1735. The origin of the name comes from the Spanish word platina meaning silver.

Symbol: Pt
Atomic Number: 78
Atomic Weight: 195.084
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 10, 6, d
Color: silvery-white
Other Names: N/A
Melting Point: 1768 °C, 3215 °F, 2041 K
Boiling Point: 3825 °C, 6917 °F, 4098 K
Density: 21.45 g·cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 19.77 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 21.45 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 21090 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.13 (kJ/kg K)
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: 2045 K, 2.0 × 10 4 kPa 
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 19.7
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 469
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 564.42
Thermal Conductivity: 71.6 W·m-1·K-1
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 8.8 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: (20 °C) 105 nΩ·m
Tensile Strength: 125-240 MPa
Molar Heat Capacity: 25.86 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 168 GPa
Shear Modulus: 61 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 230 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.38
Mohs Hardness: 4–4.5
Vickers Hardness: 549 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 392 MPa
Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 2800 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 2.28
Sanderson Electronegativity: N/A
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.44
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 1.72
Reflectivity (%): 73
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 78
Protons: 78
Neutrons: 117
Electron Configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Atomic Radius: 139 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 136±5 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.3
Van der Waals Radius: 175 pm
Oxidation States: 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, ?1, ?2, ?3 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic
Magnetic Ordering: paramagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 205.321
1st Ionization Energy: 864.39 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1791.07 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: N/A
CAS Number: 7440-06-4
EC Number: 231-116-1
MDL Number: MFCD00011179
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Pt]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Pt
PubChem CID: 23939
ChemSpider ID: 22381
Earth - Total: 1.67 ppm
Mercury - Total: 1.29 ppm
Venus - Total: 1.76 ppm
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: N/A
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: N/A
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 37
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 4
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 9
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 0.06
Stream, ppb by weight: N/A
Stream, ppb by atoms: N/A
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 1000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 100
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: N/A
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: N/A
Universe, ppb by weight: 5
Universe, ppb by atom: 0.03
Discovered By: Antonio de Ulloa
Discovery Date: 1735
First Isolation: Antonio de Ulloa (1735)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Platinum

Platinum is not toxic in its elemental form; however, safety data for Platinum and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Platinum.

Safety Data
Signal Word N/A
Hazard Statements N/A
Hazard Codes N/A
Risk Codes N/A
Safety Precautions N/A
RTECS Number TP2160000
Transport Information N/A
WGK Germany nwg
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Review and Print SDS for Platinum Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Platinum Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. PT-M-02, PT-M-03, PT-M-04, PT-M-05

CAS #: 7440-06-4

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is not classified as hazardous to health or the environment according to the CLP regulation.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
Not applicable
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
No information known.
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
Not applicable
Hazard pictograms
Not applicable
Signal word
Not applicable
Hazard statements
Not applicable
WHMIS classification
Not controlled
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)

Health (acute effects) = 0
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-06-4 Platinum
Identification number(s):
EC number:


Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Platinum oxide
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Pick up mechanically.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
Not required.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
7440-06-4 Platinum (100.0%)
PEL (USA) Long-term value: 0.002 mg/m³
soluble salts, as Pt
REL (USA) Long-term value: 1* 0.002** mg/m³
*Metal **soluble salts, as Pt
TLV (USA) Long-term value: 1* 0.002** mg/m³
*metal **soluble salts, as Pt
EL (Canada) Long-term value: 1* 0.002** mg/m³
*metal;**soluble salts (as Pt): S
EV (Canada) Long-term value: 1* 0.002** mg/m³
*metal;**water-soluble compounds (as Pt)
Additional information:
No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment:
Not required.
Protection of hands:
Not required.
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes)
Not determined
Eye protection:
Safety glasses
Body protection:
Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silvery-white
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1768.4 °C (3215 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 3825 °C (6917 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous)
Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Product does not present an explosion hazard.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 21.45 g/cm³ (179 lbs/gal)
Relative density
Not determined.
Vapor density
Not applicable.
Evaporation rate
Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Not determined
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
No information known.
Hazardous decomposition products:
Platinum oxide


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for this substance.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification:
No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
Eye irritation or corrosion:
No irritant effect.
No sensitizing effects known.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
No effects known.
No classification data on carcinogenic properties of this material is available from the EPA, IARC, NTP, OSHA or ACGIH.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
No effects known.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure:
No effects known.
Aspiration hazard:
No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity
data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow undiluted product or large quantities to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Other adverse effects
No further relevant information available.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards: Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information: DOT
Marine Pollutant (DOT): No


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
Substance is not listed.
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out.


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Platinum Isotopes

Natural platinum (Pt) has five stable isotopes (192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt) and one radioisotope with a very long half life (190Pt).

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
166Pt 165.99486(54)# 300(100) µs Unknown 0+ N/A 1262.86 -
167Pt 166.99298(44)# 700(200) µs Unknown 7/2-# N/A 1270.94 -
168Pt 167.98815(22) 2.00(18) ms a to 164Os; ß+ to 168Ir 0+ N/A 1288.33 -
169Pt 168.98672(22)# 3.7(15) ms a to 165Os; ß+ to 169Ir 3/2-# N/A 1296.41 -
170Pt 169.982495(20) 14.0(2) ms a to 166Os; ß+ to 170Ir 0+ N/A 1304.49 -
171Pt 170.98124(9) 51(2) ms a to 167Os; ß+ to 171Ir 3/2-# N/A 1312.57 -
172Pt 171.977347(14) 98.4(24) ms a to 168Os; ß+ to 172Ir 0+ N/A 1329.97 -
173Pt 172.97644(6) 365(7) ms a to 169Os; ß+ to 173Ir 5/2-# N/A 1338.04 -
174Pt 173.972819(13) 0.889(17) s a to 170Os; ß+ to 174Ir 0+ N/A 1346.12 -
175Pt 174.972421(20) 2.53(6) s a to 171Os; ß+ to 175Ir 5/2-# N/A 1354.2 -
176Pt 175.968945(15) 6.33(15) s ß+ to 176Ir; a to 172Os 0+ N/A 1371.6 -
177Pt 176.968469(16) 10.6(4) s ß+ to 177Ir; a to 173Os 5/2- N/A 1379.68 -
178Pt 177.965649(12) 21.1(6) s ß+ to 178Ir; a to 174Os 0+ N/A 1387.75 -
179Pt 178.965363(10) 21.2(4) s ß+ to 179Ir; a to 175Os 1/2- N/A 1395.83 -
180Pt 179.963031(12) 56(2) s ß+ to 180Ir; a to 176Os 0+ N/A 1403.91 -
181Pt 180.963097(16) 52.0(22) s ß+ to 181Ir; a to 177Os 1/2- N/A 1411.99 -
182Pt 181.961171(17) 2.2(1) min ß+ to 182Ir; a to 178Os 0+ N/A 1420.07 -
183Pt 182.961597(17) 6.5(10) min ß+ to 183Ir; a to 179Os 1/2- N/A 1428.15 -
184Pt 183.959922(19) 17.3(2) min ß+ to 184Ir; a to 180Os 0+ N/A 1445.54 -
185Pt 184.96062(4) 70.9(24) min ß+ to 185Ir; a to 181Os (9/2+) N/A 1444.31 -
186Pt 185.959351(23) 2.08(5) h ß+ to 186Ir; a to 182Os 0+ N/A 1461.7 -
187Pt 186.96059(3) 2.35(3) h ß+ to 187Ir 3/2- N/A 1460.46 -
188Pt 187.959395(6) 10.2(3) d EC to 188Ir; a to 184Os 0+ N/A 1477.86 -
189Pt 188.960834(12) 10.87(12) h ß+ to 189Ir 3/2- N/A 1476.62 -
190Pt 189.959932(6) 6.5(3)E+11 y a to 186Os 0+ N/A 1494.01 0.014
191Pt 190.961677(5) 2.862(7) d EC to 191Ir 3/2- 0.5 1492.78 -
192Pt 191.9610380(27) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1500.86 0.782
193Pt 192.9629874(18) 50(6) y EC to 193Ir 1/2- N/A 1508.93 -
194Pt 193.9626803(9) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1517.01 32.967
195Pt 194.9647911(9) Observationally Stable - 1/2- 0.6095 1525.09 33.832
196Pt 195.9649515(9) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1533.17 25.242
197Pt 196.9673402(9) 19.8915(19) h ß- to 197Au 1/2- 0.51 1541.25 -
198Pt 197.967893(3) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 1549.33 7.163
199Pt 198.970593(3) 30.80(21) min ß- to 199Au 5/2- N/A 1548.09 -
200Pt 199.971441(22) 12.5(3) h ß- to 200Au 0+ N/A 1556.17 -
201Pt 200.97451(5) 2.5(1) min ß- to 201Au (5/2-) N/A 1564.25 -
202Pt 201.97574(32)# 44(15) h ß- to 202Au 0+ N/A 1572.33 -