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About Nickel

Nickel Bohr Model

Despite being extremely common, nickel spent centuries of human history narrowly escaping recognition as a unique metal. As a component of the meteorites that were the only source of iron before its extraction from ore was commonplace, nickel was found in every iron object produced prior to the iron age. As early as 1700 BCE, metalworkers from one Chinese province were highly regarded for paktong, or white copper--a metal smelted from local ores, with a small addition of zinc added for workability--but it was not recognized that the unusual color of the alloy resulted from the high content of a third metal, nickel, in the copper ores. Other ancient societies similarly used naturally occurring copper-nickel ores to produce metal for used for coinage, but also failed to distinguish the metal clearly from pure copper.

It wasn’t until 1751 that Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt extracted a white metal from a mineral known as kupfernickel. Frustrated by their inability to extract copper from what they thought was copper ore, medieval German miners had given this mineral its name: kupfer from copper, and nickel from Old Nick, an old name for the devil, whose minions they blamed for their misfortune. Thus, the name Cronstedt gave to his newly discovered metal nickel referenced the host mineral, and by extension, its mythologized demonic origins.

At the time of Baron Cronstedt’s discovery, his new metal was still considered about as useless as the miners had found its native ore, but in 1823, that changed abruptly. Europeans had been importing the Chinese alloy "paktong" (cupronickel) for two centuries, and now finally several German scientists had painstakingly recreated it and developed a functional production process. This European version of cupronickel came to be known as German silver, nickel silver, and by a number of trade names. German silver was valued for its resemblance to silver as well as its hardness and corrosion resistance, and was sought after for both decorative and functional applications, including the production of silverware, musical instruments, plumbing fixtures, and coins. The exact formulation of copper-nickel alloys has varied somewhat over time and by application, but they are still used widely.

Attractive and functional alloys remain the largest use of nickel. Nickel is a key component of some formulations of stainless steel and cast iron, as well as some superalloys designed for use under extreme conditions. Additionally, Alnico alloys containing nickel make strong permanent magnets used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Nickel is also widely used as a thin layer plated on other metals through either electroplating or electroless methods. Either form of nickel plating provides increased resistance to wear and corrosion, as nickel is very hard and develops a thin oxide coating upon exposure to air, preventing further corrosion. One key use of the electroless process specifically is in the production of hard-drive disks, where the nickel layer provides an extremely smooth surface in preparation for the deposition of magnetic recording layers.

The other major use for nickel is in batteries and fuel cells. A variety of battery designs, including those exploiting nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, and nickel-metal-hydride chemistry, use nickel as a cathode. In alkaline fuel cells, nickel foam or nickel mesh are used as gas diffusion electrodes. Additionally, nickel or nickel alloys such as Raney nickel are used as catalysts in industrial chemistry and organic synthesis, and nickel is sometimes added to glasses or ceramic glazes to produce a bright green color.

Nickel is mined from two types of ore deposits: laterites or magmatic sulfide deposits. The process used to refine nickel involves traditional roasting and reduction of concentrated ores that produce a metal of 75% or greater purity. In some applications such as stainless steel, this relatively low purity may be sufficient and no further requirement is required, but a variety of purification techniques exist to produce higher purity metals. The Mond process has been used since the late nineteenth century to produce nickel metal of 4N purity or higher from nickel oxides.


Sputtering Targets
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Nickel is extensively alloyed with iron, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten to produce stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys. Nickel's high electrical High Purity (99.999%) Nickel Oxide (NiO) Powderconductivity lends itself to many electronics applications. For example, it is the basis of the nickel hydride battery and is an ideal component for ceramic anode formulations used in oxygen generation and solid oxide fuel cell applications. Nickel is also used as a pigment; its addition to High Purity (99.999%) Nickel (Ni) Sputtering Targetglass and ceramic glazes results in a bright green color. Nickel is available as metal and compounds with purities from 99% to 99.999% (ACS grade to ultra-high purity). Elemental or metallic forms include pellets, rod, wire and granules for evaporation source material purposes. Nickel nanoparticles and nanopowders are also available. Nickel oxides are available in powder and dense pellet form for such uses as optical coating and thin film applications. Oxides tend to be insoluble. Nickel fluorides are another insoluble form for uses in which oxygen is undesirable such as metallurgy, chemical and physical vapor deposition and in some optical coatings. Nickel is also available in soluble forms including chlorides, nitrates and acetates. These compounds can be manufactured as solutions at specified stoichiometries.

Nickel Properties

Nickel(Ni) atomic and molecular weight, atomic number and elemental symbolNickel is a Block D, Group 4, Period 4 element. The number of electrons in each of nickel's shells is 2, 8, 16, 2 and its electron configuration is [Ar]3d8 4s2. Elemental NickelNickel Bohr ModelThe nickel atom has a radius of and its Van der Waals radius is In its elemental form, CAS 7440-02-0, nickel has a lustrous metallic silver appearance. Nickel is sometimes found free in nature but is more commonly found in ores. The bulk of mined nickel comes from laterite and magmatic sulfide ores. Nickel was first discovered by Alex Cronstedt in 1751. The name originates from the German word 'kupfernickel' which means false copper from the illusory copper color of the ore.

Symbol: Ni
Atomic Number: 28
Atomic Weight: 58.6934
Element Category: transition metal
Group, Period, Block: 10, 4, d
Color: lustrous, metallic, silvery tinge
Other Names: Niccolum, Nichel, Níquel
Melting Point: 1453.0 °C, 2647.4 °F, 1726.15 K
Boiling Point: 2732.0 °C, 4949.6 °F, 3005.15 K
Density: 8.902g/cm3
Liquid Density @ Melting Point: 7.81 g·cm3
Density @ 20°C: 8.91 g/cm3
Density of Solid: 8908 kg·m3
Specific Heat: 0.106 Cal/g/ K @ 25°C
Superconductivity Temperature: N/A
Triple Point: N/A
Critical Point: N/A
Heat of Fusion (kJ·mol-1): 17.6
Heat of Vaporization (kJ·mol-1): 374.8
Heat of Atomization (kJ·mol-1): 427.659
Thermal Conductivity: 0.909 W/cm/ K @ 298.2  K
Thermal Expansion: (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m-1·K-1
Electrical Resistivity: 6.84 nΩ-cm @ 20°C
Tensile Strength: N/A
Molar Heat Capacity: 26.07 J·mol-1·K-1
Young's Modulus: 200 GPa
Shear Modulus: 76 GPa
Bulk Modulus: 180 GPa
Poisson Ratio: 0.31
Mohs Hardness: 4
Vickers Hardness: 638 MPa
Brinell Hardness: 700 MPa
Speed of Sound: (r.t.) 4900 m·s-1
Pauling Electronegativity: 1.91
Sanderson Electronegativity: 1.94
Allred Rochow Electronegativity: 1.75
Mulliken-Jaffe Electronegativity: N/A
Allen Electronegativity: N/A
Pauling Electropositivity: 2.09
Reflectivity (%): 72
Refractive Index: N/A
Electrons: 28
Protons: 28
Neutrons: 31
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d8 4s2
Atomic Radius: 124 pm
Atomic Radius,
non-bonded (Å):
Covalent Radius: 124±4 pm
Covalent Radius (Å): 1.17
Van der Waals Radius: 163 pm
Oxidation States: 4, 3, 2, 1, -1 (mildly basic oxide)
Phase: Solid
Crystal Structure: Cubic
Magnetic Ordering: ferromagnetic
Electron Affinity (kJ·mol-1) 111.498
1st Ionization Energy: 737.13 kJ·mol-1
2nd Ionization Energy: 1753.04 kJ·mol-1
3rd Ionization Energy: 3395.34 kJ·mol-1
CAS Number: 7440-02-0
EC Number: 231-111-4
MDL Number: MFCD00011137
Beilstein Number: N/A
SMILES Identifier: [Ni]
InChI Identifier: InChI=1S/Ni
PubChem CID: 935
ChemSpider ID: 910
Earth - Total: 1.82% 
Mercury - Total: 3.66%
Venus - Total: 1.77%
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by weight: 2
Earth - Seawater (Oceans), ppb by atoms: 0.21
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by weight: 90000
Earth -  Crust (Crustal Rocks), ppb by atoms: 32000
Sun - Total, ppb by weight: 80000
Sun - Total, ppb by atoms: 2000
Stream, ppb by weight: 0.3
Stream, ppb by atoms: 0.01
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by weight: 13000000
Meterorite (Carbonaceous), ppb by atoms: 4400000
Typical Human Body, ppb by weight: 100
Typical Human Body, ppb by atom: 11
Universe, ppb by weight: 60000
Universe, ppb by atom: 1000
Discovered By: Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Discovery Date: 1751
First Isolation: Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)

Health, Safety & Transportation Information for Nickel

Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic. Nickel carbonyl is a very toxic gas. Safety data for Nickel and its compounds can vary widely depending on the form. For potential hazard information, toxicity, and road, sea and air transportation limitations, such as DOT Hazard Class, DOT Number, EU Number, NFPA Health rating and RTECS Class, please see the specific material or compound referenced in the Products tab. The below information applies to elemental (metallic) Nickel.

Safety Data
Signal Word Danger
Hazard Statements H317-H351-H372-H412
Hazard Codes Xn
Risk Codes 10-40-43
Safety Precautions 16-36/37
RTECS Number N/A
Transport Information UN 3089 4.1/PG 2
WGK Germany 2
Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labelling (GHS)
Exclamation Mark-Acute Toxicity Health Hazard
Review and Print SDS for Nickel Metal


Date Created: 05/15/2015
Date Revised: 05/15/2015


Product Name: Nickel Metal

Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. NI-M-02, NI-M-03, NI-M-04, NI-M-05

CAS #: 7440-02-0

Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development

Supplier details:
American Elements
1093 Broxton Ave. Suite 2000
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Tel: +1 310-208-0551
Fax: +1 310-208-0351

Emergency telephone number:
Domestic, North America +1 800-424-9300
International +1 703-527-3887


Classification of the substance or mixture
Classification according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
GHS08 Health hazard
Carc. 2 H351 Suspected of causing cancer.
STOT RE 1 H372 Causes damage to the lung, the kidneys and the liver through prolonged or repeated exposure. Route of exposure: Inhalative.
Skin Sens. 1 H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction.
Classification according to Directive 67/548/EEC or Directive 1999/45/EC
T; Toxic
R48/23: Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
Xn; Harmful
R40: Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.
Xi; Sensitizing
R43: May cause sensitization by skin contact.
Carc. Cat. 3
Information concerning particular hazards for human and environment:
Not applicable
Hazards not otherwise classified
No information known.
Label elements
Labelling according to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008
The substance is classified and labeled according to the CLP regulation.
Hazard pictograms

Exclamation Mark - GHS07 Health Hazard - GHS08

Signal word: Danger
Hazard statements
H317 May cause an allergic skin reaction.
H351 Suspected of causing cancer.
H372 Causes damage to the lung, the kidneys and the liver through prolonged or repeated exposure. Route of exposure: Inhalative.
Precautionary statements
P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P261 Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.
P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.
P363 Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.
P405 Store locked up.
P501 Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.
WHMIS classification
D2A - Very toxic material causing other toxic effects
Classification system
HMIS ratings (scale 0-4)
(Hazardous Materials Identification System)

Health (acute effects) = 1
Flammability = 0
Physical Hazard = 0
Other hazards
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Chemical characterization: Substances
CAS# Description:
7440-02-0 Nickel
Identification number(s):
EC number: 231-111-4
Index number: 028-002-00-7


Description of first aid measures
General information
No special measures required.
After inhalation
Supply fresh air and to be sure call for a doctor.
Seek medical treatment in case of complaints.
After skin contact
Generally the product does not irritate the skin.
After eye contact
Rinse opened eye for several minutes under running water. If symptoms persist, consult a doctor.
After swallowing
If symptoms persist consult doctor.
Information for doctor
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed
No further relevant information available.
Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed
No further relevant information available.


Extinguishing media
Suitable extinguishing agents
Special powder for metal fires. Do not use water.
For safety reasons unsuitable extinguishing agents
Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture
If this product is involved in a fire, the following can be released:
Toxic metal oxide fume
Advice for firefighters
Protective equipment:
No special measures required.


Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures
Not required.
Environmental precautions:
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Do not allow product to reach sewage system or any water course.
Do not allow to penetrate the ground/soil.
Methods and material for containment and cleaning up:
Dispose of contaminated material as waste according to section 13.
Prevention of secondary hazards:
No special measures required.
Reference to other sections
See Section 7 for information on safe handling
See Section 8 for information on personal protection equipment.
See Section 13 for disposal information.


Precautions for safe handling
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry place in tightly closed containers.
Ensure good ventilation at the workplace.
Information about protection against explosions and fires:
No special measures required.
Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities
Requirements to be met by storerooms and receptacles:
No special requirements.
Information about storage in one common storage facility:
No information known.
Further information about storage conditions:
Keep container tightly sealed.
Store in cool, dry conditions in well sealed containers.
Specific end use(s)
No further relevant information available.


Additional information about design of technical systems:
No further data; see section 7.
Control parameters
Components with limit values that require monitoring at the workplace:
7440-02-0 Nickel (100.0%)
PEL (USA) Long-term value: 1 mg/m³
REL (USA) Long-term value: 0.015 mg/m³ as Ni; See Pocket Guide App. A
TLV (USA) Long-term value: 1.5* mg/m³ elemental, *inhalable fraction
EL (Canada) Long-term value: 0.05 mg/m³ as Ni; ACIGH A1, IARC 1
EV (Canada) Long-term value: 1* 0.2** 0.1*** mg/m³ inh.;*metal;**insol. compds.;***soluble compds.
Additional information: No data
Exposure controls
Personal protective equipment
General protective and hygienic measures
The usual precautionary measures for handling chemicals should be followed.
Maintain an ergonomically appropriate working environment.
Breathing equipment: Not required.
Protection of hands: Not required.
Penetration time of glove material (in minutes)
Not determined
Eye protection: Safety glasses
Body protection: Protective work clothing.


Information on basic physical and chemical properties
General Information
Form: Solid in various forms
Color: Silver grey
Odor: Odorless
Odor threshold: Not determined.
pH-value: Not applicable.
Change in condition
Melting point/Melting range: 1455 °C (2651 °F)
Boiling point/Boiling range: 2732 °C (4950 °F)
Sublimation temperature / start: Not determined
Flammability (solid, gaseous): Not determined.
Ignition temperature: Not determined
Decomposition temperature: Not determined
Auto igniting: Not determined.
Danger of explosion: Not determined.
Explosion limits:
Lower: Not determined
Upper: Not determined
Vapor pressure: Not applicable.
Density at 20 °C (68 °F): 8.908 g/cm³ (74.337 lbs/gal)
Relative density: Not determined.
Vapor density: Not applicable.
Evaporation rate: Not applicable.
Solubility in / Miscibility with Water: Insoluble
Partition coefficient (n-octanol/water): Not determined.
dynamic: Not applicable.
kinematic: Not applicable.
Other information
No further relevant information available.


No information known.
Chemical stability
Stable under recommended storage conditions.
Thermal decomposition / conditions to be avoided:
Decomposition will not occur if used and stored according to specifications.
Possibility of hazardous reactions
No dangerous reactions known
Conditions to avoid
No further relevant information available.
Incompatible materials:
No information known.
Hazardous decomposition products:
Toxic metal oxide fume


Information on toxicological effects
Acute toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains acute toxicity data for this substance.
LD/LC50 values that are relevant for classification: No data
Skin irritation or corrosion:
Powder: irritant effect
Eye irritation or corrosion:
Powder: irritant effect
May cause an allergic skin reaction.
Germ cell mutagenicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains mutation data for this substance.
Suspected of causing cancer.
IARC-2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans: limited evidence in humans in the absence of sufficient evidence in experimental animals.
NTP-R: Reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen: limited evidence from studies in humans or sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals.
ACGIH A5: Not suspected as a human carcinogen: Not suspected as a human carcinogen on the basis of properly conducted epidemiologic studies in humans.
Studies have sufficiently long follow-up, reliable exposure histories, sufficiently high dose, and adequate statistical power to conclude that exposure to the agent does not convey a significant risk of cancer to humans. Evidence suggesting a lack of carcinogenicity in experimental animals will be considered if it is supported byother relevant data.
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains tumorigenic and/or carcinogenic and/or neoplastic data for this substance.
Reproductive toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains reproductive data for this substance.
Specific target organ system toxicity - repeated exposure:
Causes damage to the lung, the kidneys and the liver through prolonged or repeated exposure. Route of exposure: Inhalative.
Specific target organ system toxicity - single exposure: No effects known.
Aspiration hazard: No effects known.
Subacute to chronic toxicity:
The Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) contains multiple dose toxicity data for this substance.
Additional toxicological information:
To the best of our knowledge the acute and chronic toxicity of this substance is not fully known.


Aquatic toxicity:
No further relevant information available.
Persistence and degradability
No further relevant information available.
Bioaccumulative potential
No further relevant information available.
Mobility in soil
No further relevant information available.
Additional ecological information:
General notes:
Do not allow product to reach ground water, water course or sewage system.
Do not allow material to be released to the environment without proper governmental permits.
Danger to drinking water if even small quantities leak into the ground.
Avoid transfer into the environment.
Results of PBT and vPvB assessment
PBT: Not applicable.
vPvB: Not applicable.


Waste treatment methods
Consult state, local or national regulations to ensure proper disposal.
Uncleaned packagings:
Disposal must be made according to official regulations.


Not applicable
UN proper shipping name
Not applicable
Transport hazard class(es)
Not applicable
Packing group
Not applicable
Environmental hazards:
Not applicable.
Special precautions for user
Not applicable.
Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code
Not applicable.
Transport/Additional information:
Marine Pollutant (DOT):
UN "Model Regulation":


Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture
National regulations
All components of this product are listed in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical substance Inventory.
All components of this product are listed on the Canadian Domestic Substances List (DSL).
SARA Section 313 (specific toxic chemical listings)
7440-02-0 Nickel
California Proposition 65
Prop 65 - Chemicals known to cause cancer
7440-02-0 Nickel
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, female
Substance is not listed.
Prop 65 - Developmental toxicity, male
Substance is not listed.
Information about limitation of use:
For use only by technically qualified individuals.
This product is subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986 and 40CFR372.
Other regulations, limitations and prohibitive regulations
Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) according to the REACH Regulations (EC) No. 1907/2006.
Substance is not listed.
The conditions of restrictions according to Article 67 and Annex XVII of the Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH) for the manufacturing, placing on the market and use must be observed.
Substance is not listed.
Annex XIV of the REACH Regulations (requiring Authorisation for use)
Substance is not listed.
REACH - Pre-registered substances
Substance is listed.
Chemical safety assessment:
A Chemical Safety Assessment has not been carried out


Safety Data Sheet according to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH). The above information is believed to be correct but does not purport to be all inclusive and shall be used only as a guide. The information in this document is based on the present state of our knowledge and is applicable to the product with regard to appropriate safety precautions. It does not represent any guarantee of the properties of the product. American Elements shall not be held liable for any damage resulting from handling or from contact with the above product. See reverse side of invoice or packing slip for additional terms and conditions of sale. COPYRIGHT 1997-2016 AMERICAN ELEMENTS. LICENSED GRANTED TO MAKE UNLIMITED PAPER COPIES FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.

Nickel Isotopes

Naturally occurring nickel is composed of five stable isotopes; 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni and 64Ni. 58Ni is the most abundant (68.077%).

Nuclide Isotopic Mass Half-Life Mode of Decay Nuclear Spin Magnetic Moment Binding Energy (MeV) Natural Abundance
(% by atom)
48Ni 48.01975(54)# 10# ms [>500 ns] Unknown 0+ N/A 338.66 -
49Ni 49.00966(43)# 13(4) ms [12(+5-3) ms] Unknown 7/2-# N/A 356.05 -
50Ni 49.99593(28)# 9.1(18) ms ß+ to 50Cu 0+ N/A 377.18 -
51Ni 50.98772(28)# 30# ms [>200 ns] ß+ to 51Cu 7/2-# N/A 392.71 -
52Ni 51.97568(9)# 38(5) ms ß+ to 52Cu; ß+ + p to 51Fe 0+ N/A 411.97 -
53Ni 52.96847(17)# 45(15) ms ß+ to 53Cu; ß+ + p to 52Fe (7/2-)# N/A 426.57 -
54Ni 53.95791(5) 104(7) ms ß+ to 54Cu 0+ N/A 444.89 -
55Ni 54.951330(12) 204.7(17) ms ß+ to 55Cu 7/2- N/A 458.56 -
56Ni 55.942132(12) 6.075(10) d ß+ to 56Cu 0+ N/A 475.02 -
57Ni 56.9397935(19) 35.60(6) h EC to 57Co 3/2- 0.88 485.9 -
58Ni 57.9353429(7) Observationally Stable - 0+ N/A 497.7 68.0769
59Ni 58.9343467(7) 7.6(5)E+4 y EC to 59 Co 3/2- N/A 506.71 -
60Ni 59.9307864(7) STABLE - 0+ N/A 518.52 26.2231
61Ni 60.9310560(7) STABLE - 3/2- -0.75002 525.67 1.1399
62Ni 61.9283451(6) STABLE - 0+ N/A 536.54 3.6345
63Ni 62.9296694(6) 100.1(20) y ß- to 63Cu 1/2- N/A 543.69 -
64Ni 63.9279660(7) STABLE - 0+ N/A 553.63 0.9256
65Ni 64.9300843(7) 2.5172(3) h ß- to 65Cu 5/2- 0.69 558.91 -
66Ni 65.9291393(15) 54.6(3) h ß- to 66Cu 0+ N/A 567.92 -
67Ni 66.931569(3) 21(1) s ß- to 67Cu 1/2- N/A 574.14 -
68Ni 67.931869(3) 29(2) s ß- to 68Cu 0+ N/A 582.22 -
69Ni 68.935610(4) 11.5(3) s ß- to 69Cu 9/2+ N/A 586.57 -
70Ni 69.93650(37) 6.0(3) s ß- to 70Cu 0+ N/A 593.72 -
71Ni 70.94074(40) 2.56(3) s ß- to 71Cu 1/2-# N/A 598.07 -
72Ni 71.94209(47) 1.57(5) s ß- to 72Cu; ß- + n to 71Cu 0+ N/A 604.28 -
73Ni 72.94647(32)# 0.84(3) s ß- to 73Cu; ß- + n to 72Cu (9/2+) N/A 608.64 -
74Ni 73.94807(43)# 0.68(18) s ß- to 74Cu; ß- + n to 73Cu 0+ N/A 614.85 -
75Ni 74.95287(43)# 0.6(2) s ß- to 75Cu; ß- + n to 74Cu (7/2+)# N/A 619.2 -
76Ni 75.95533(97)# 470(390) ms [0.24(+55-24) s] ß- to 76Cu; ß- + n to 75Cu 0+ N/A 624.49 -
77Ni 76.96055(54)# 300# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 77Cu 9/2+# N/A 627.91 -
78Ni 77.96318(118)# 120# ms [>300 ns] ß- to 78Cu 0+ N/A 633.19 -