(2N) 99% • (3N) 99.9% • (4N) 99.99% • (5N) 99.999% • (6N) 99.9999%
SPUTTERING TARGET & DEPOSITION MATERIALS
Deposition Materials • Evaporation Materials • Sputtering Targets • Rotatable Sputtering Targets
Thin Film • Foil • Rod • Wire • Bar • Sheet • Ingot • Plate
(oxide and fluoride) and high purity metal shapes with the highest density
and smallest grain sizes for use in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and
physical vapor deposition (PVD) for thin film, optic, and electronic applications.
American Elements is a global manufacturer of Sputtering Targets, Foil, Rods, Wires, Bars, Sheets, Plates and <0.5 mm Thin Films from the rare earth elements and other electronic and optic materials. American Elements produces high purity metals and compounds with the highest possible density and smallest possible average grain sizes for use in semiconductor, chemical and physical vapor deposition (PVD) display and optical applications. We also produce the rare earths and most advanced metals as cast rods and plates.
Materials are produced using crystallization, solid state and other ultra high purification processes. American Elements specializes in producing custom compositions for research and new proprietary technologies.
Our standard target sizes range from 1" to 8" in diameter and from 2mm to 1/2" thick. We can also provide targets outside this range in addition to just about any size rectangular, annular, or oval-shaped target. American Elements also casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced materials into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes such as nanoparticles and Quantum Dots (see Nanotechnology for more information on applications of nanomaterials) and in forms such as solutions and organometallics. Other shapes are available by request.
For large area thin film deposition, American Elements produces rotatable sputtering targets via casting or plasma deposition onto a tubular substrate. Rotatable sputtering targets are available up to 1,000 mm in length and can be produced from a number of metallic, oxide and alloy sources for use in many applications where large film areas are required, such as photovoltaic and other coatings.
All machined pieces are produced by casting oversized blanks, and machining down to required specifications. They are usually machined to tolerances of +0.010"/-0" on diameter, length or width, and +/-0.005" on thickness. Larger targets are also finished to a flatness within 0.015". We can accommodate tighter tolerances upon request.
Sputtering deposition uses a plasma, which is usually formed from a non-reactive gas, to bombard the target material for the thin film and knock the atoms of the target material out of its bulk. The ejected atoms then land on the substrate and form a thin film. Since the target does not need to be heated, the technique is very flexible for a wide range of applications. Targets can be composed of pure elements as well as compounds or mixtures.
USES & APPLICATIONS FOR SPUTTERING TARGETS AND EVAPORATION MATERIALS
Electronics and Semiconductors. The first commercial use for the sputtering target was in semiconductors and electronics for front end and back end packaging, diffusion barriers, compounds, phase change memory, IC interconnects, micro contacts, and in sensors, MEMs and LEDs. Sputtering targets and evaporation materials composed of copper and copper alloys, including copper-nickel and copper-chromium, as well as nickel and nickel alloys such as nickel-aluminum, nickel-vanadium, nickel-platinum, nickel-copper and nickel-chromium, are manufactured for packaging and other applications. Additional materials include aluminum (both in its elemental form and alloyed with copper and silicon as aluminum-copper, aluminum-silicon, and aluminum-copper-silicon), titanium as element and titanium-tungsten alloy. The conductive and solder wetting properties of gold make it an important deposition material, including gold alloys such as gold-tin, gold-antimony, gold-silicon, gold-copper, and gold-germanium. Phase Change Alloys such as germanium-antimony alloyed with tellurium, silver, indium and platinum and transparent conductive oxides (TCO) for light emitting applications such as sensors and light emitting diodes (LED). These include indium-tin oxide (ITO) and zinc oxide doped with aluminum and other elements. American Elements also produces ultra high purity sputtering targets and other evaporation materials for electronic applications composed of hafnium, molybdenum, silver, iridium, rhodium and ruthenium.
Anti-Abrasive Coatings for Wear Protection. Electroplating active surfaces of tools and dies to protect against wear and extend life has given way in recent years to the deposition of these coating materials as a more cost effective alternative. Typical protective materials using sputtering targets and other evaporation materials include titanium, titanium carbide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, aluminum, nickel, chromium and tungsten carbide.
Magnetic Materials. The use of high strength magnets have found application in numerous industries including automotive, aerospace, biomedical imaging and auditory engineering. Sputtering targets and other evaporation materials of these advanced magnetic materials are manufactured by American Elements from samarium cobalt and neodymium iron boron alloy.
Optical and Architectural Glass. The ability of certain elements to selectively absorb and emit highly specific wave length ranges and reduce glare due to their high refractive index when deposited on a glass substrate resulted in the development of sputtering and evaporation materials of elemental rare earths, such as neodymium and dysprosium and many other optically active and anti-reflective (AR) materials. Architectural glass for residential, commercial and office building applications has also benefited from the availability of these types of coatings.
Photovoltaic Solar Energy Panels. The three primary solar energy technologies (silicon based, Copper Indium Selenide (CIS) and Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)) are layered structures that require sputtering targets and other evaporation materials at several stages including certain transparent conductive oxides (TCO) such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and doped zinc oxide as the top electrode, molybdenum as the back plate, and antimony telluride and zinc telluride in CIS and CIG photovoltaic cells.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Typical solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs contain an electronically conductive low density cathode, a high density, ionically conductive electrolyte, and an electronically conductive open air electrode. Sputtering targets are produced by American Elements to meet the needs of each of these layers including Perovskite cathode materials including Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (LSM), Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite (LSF), Lanthanum Strontium Cobaltite Ferrite (LSCF), Lanthanum Strontium Chromite (LSC), and Lanthanum Strontium Gallate Magnesite (LSGM) with doping levels and other parameters to customer specifications and ionically conductive electrolytes including YSZ (Yttria stabilized Zirconia), SCZ (Scandium doped Zirconia), Samarium doped Ceria, Gadolinium doped Ceria and Yttrium doped Ceria. These fuel cells materials are marketed under the trademark AE Fuel Cells™.
Data Storage. Sputtering targets and other evaporation materials are now essential to the coating and manufacturing of optical storage devices such as CDs and DVDs to provide both wear protection and reflectivity.
ELEMENTAL SPUTTERING TARGETS
OXIDE SPUTTERING TARGETS
COMPOUND SPUTTERING TARGETS
ALLOY SPUTTERING TARGETS
DEPOSITION METHODS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE SPUTTERING TARGETS
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) uses pulses of a high-power laser beam to ablate the target material. The material on the target surface is instantly evaporated and turned into plasma, and it returns back to vapor phase. Finally, the ablated material then collects and deposits on top of a correctly placed substrate. This technique has the advatages over the others in that it preserves the stoichiometry of the target on the film formed and the rate of deposition is higher than the others.
Physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD refers to the purely physical formation of the thin film on top of the substrate, there should be no chemical reaction involved in the formation of the thin film. Typically PVD is done in a low-pressure environment, though there are a number of PVD techniques. Evaporation deposition raises the temperature of material of thin film so its vapor pressure reaches a useful range. The vapor then moves and deposits on top of the substrate of interest.Electron Beam Evaporation a form of PVD in which the target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum. The electrion beam causes atoms from the target material to transform into a gaseous phase, these atoms then return to solid form coating everything in the vacuum chamber with a thin film. It can also be used in conjuction with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).
Electron beam evaporation research applications include medical, metallurgical, telecommunication, microelectronics, optical coating, nanotechnology and semiconductor industries. Typical source materials include titanium, platinum, aluminum, aluminum oxide, antimony, barium, bismuth, boron, boron carbide, calcium, cerium, chromium, chromium oxide, cobalt, dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, hafnium, hafnium oxide, indium, indium tin oxide, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, lithium fluoride, magnesium, magnesium fluroide, magnesium oxide, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, nickel-chromium, nickel iron, niobium, palladium, permalloy hymu 80 (Fe-Mn-Mo-Ni), rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon monoxide, strontium, tantalum, tantalum oxide, tin, tin oxide, titanium, titanium dioxide, titanium monoxide, tungsten, tungsten oxide, vanadium, ytterbium, yttrium, yttrium fluoride, zinc, zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, zirconium, zirconium oxide, copper, silver, gold, gold-tin, gold-germanium, and other metals and alloys.
Chemical vapor deposition(CVD) refers to the formation of the thin film on the substrate involves chemical reaction. Typically, a fluid precursor moves onto the substrate and one or more chemical reactions take place, which forms a layer of the thin film.Chemical Vapor Deposition generally uses a gas-phase precursor, often a halide or hydride of the element to be deposited. In the case of metal-organic chemical vapor depsoisition(MOCVD), an organometallic gas is used. Commercial techniques often use very low pressures of precursor gas. In the case of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), which is a special case of MOCVD, an ionized vapor, or plasma, is used as a precursor. Commercial PECVD relies on electromagnetic means (electric current or microwave excitation), rather than a chemical reaction, to produce a plasma. MOCVD is currently being used in the manufacturing of graphene, carbon nanotubes, LED, laser-emitting diodes, multijunction solar cell, optoelectronics, microelectronics, semiconductor, phase-change memory, photodectors, and mirco-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Chemical depositon is typically much less directional, or sensitive to geometry, than physical deposition.
Rods and Plates. American Elements casts any of the rare earth metals and most other advanced material into rod, bar or plate form, as well as other machined shapes. All as-cast rods, bars and plates are produced from either the pure metal Ingots or sublimed metals. We have a variety of standard sized rod molds, from a minimum of 1/4" diameter up to 3" diameter for most rod needs. Plates are also offered in standard thicknesses, from 1/4" thick to 1" thick. Maximum rod lengths and maximum plate sizes are dependent on melt capacity and furnace room. Small diameter rods may have only a 4"-6" maximum cast length, whereas larger diameter rods may be cast up to about 16" long. Plate sizes can be cast up to a size of 24" x 16". As-cast rods or plates are saw-cut to length or final dimensions, and the metal surface may have visible flow marks.
Tubing. AE produces a complete line of fully characterized round, oval, rectangular and square seamless tubing in diameters from 0.2 to 6.0 inches and wall thicknesses from 0.003 to 0.500 inches produced from advanced and high purity metals for use in industrial and research applications in the fields of electronics, energy, medical devices and aerospace among many others. Tubing can be further processed at the customer's request to rings, washers, sleeves and sheaths. Tubing is produced from most metals including: Aluminum, Bismuth, Carbon, Cerium (as well as most other rare earths), Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Erbium, Germanium, Gold, Indium, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Neodymium, Nickel, Niobium, Ruthenium, Silicon, Silver, Tin, Titanium, Tungsten, Vanadium, Yttrium, Zinc, and Zirconium.
Recent Research & Development for Sputtering Targets
- Jia Liu, Weijia Zhang, Dengyuan Song, Qiang Ma, Lei Zhang, Hui Zhang, Xiaobo Ma, Haiyang Song, Comparative study of the sintering process and thin film sputtering of AZO, GZO and AGZO ceramics targets, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 8, Part B, September 2014
- Nuno Neves, Ana Lagoa, João Calado, A.M. Botelho do Rego, Elvira Fortunato, Rodrigo Martins, Isabel Ferreira, Al-doped ZnO nanostructured powders by emulsion detonation synthesis – Improving materials for high quality sputtering targets manufacturing, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 34, Issue 10, September 2014
- Bao-Tang Jheng, Kuo-Min Huang, Shang-Fu Chen, Meng-Chyi Wu, Effects of substrate temperature on the Cu2ZnSnS4 films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering with single target, Thin Solid Films, Volume 564, 1 August 2014
- Ph.V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, J.F. Pierson, K.A. Kuptsov, D.V. Shtansky, Hard Cr-Al-Si-B-(N) coatings deposited by reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering of CrAlSiB target, Applied Surface Science, Available online 4 July 2014
- Bo Zhang, Zhengyong Wu, Yongde Tao, Corrosion behavior in simulated environments of ITZO films prepared by two targets co-sputtering, Ceramics International, Volume 40, Issue 6, July 2014
- Yoon S. Choi, Jay B. Kim, Jeon G. Han, Optical absorption spectroscopy of facing targets and conventional magnetron sputtering during process of Al-doped ZnO films, Surface and Coatings Technology, Available online 1 July 2014
- Pengfei Wang, Takanori Takeno, Julien Fontaine, Masami Aono, Koshi Adachi, Hiroyuki Miki, Toshiyuki Takagi, Effects of substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power on the structural and tribological properties of carbon nitride coatings, Materials Chemistry and Physics, Volume 145, Issue 3, 16 June 2014
- I. Miccoli, R. Spampinato, F. Marzo, P. Prete, N. Lovergine, DC-magnetron sputtering of ZnO:Al films on (00.1)Al2O3 substrates from slip-casting sintered ceramic targets, Applied Surface Science, Available online 6 June 2014
- Naoki Tsukamoto, Sakae Sensui, Junjun Jia, Nobuto Oka, Yuzo Shigesato, Study on reactive sputtering to deposit transparent conductive amorphous In2O3–ZnO films using an In–Zn alloy target, Thin Solid Films, Volume 559, 30 May 2014
- Amina Zouina Ait Djafer, Nadia Saoula, Noureddine Madaoui, Abdellatif Zerizer, Deposition and characterization of titanium carbide thin films by magnetron sputtering using Ti and TiC targets, Applied Surface Science, Available online 20 May 2014